Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Lees Surrender Essay Example For Students

Dregs Surrender Essay A few people accept that Robert E. Lee didn't have that much effect on the South. They accept that he was an only an extraordinary general and that he didnt have a lot of effect on the Confederate states. These individuals more likely than not been from the North since General Robert E. Lee greatly affected the South during the war, yet he had a significantly more prominent effect after the war. Individuals don't generally act to their greatest advantage. The South spent more in loss of lives than keeping subjugation was worth in financial terms. The North spent more battling the South than it would have cost to pay for the slave proprietors for their property. Individuals by huge are guided by pioneers. At the point when their pioneers walk off into an indiscretion, the individuals regularly follow (Alexander 318). The most intelligent thing Lee could possibly do was give up at Appomattox and shut down the battling. Before Lee gave up, he was gone up against by Porter Alexander and offered the possibility of guerrilla fighting. Lee compellingly lastly dismissed the possibility of this. He spared incalculable existences of his troopers by dismissing this thought. Lee offered this expression in the hours prior to the acquiescence, It is our obligation to live, for what will happen to the ladies and offspring of the South on the off chance that we are not here to help and ensu re them (Bradford 111). The South had a lot of respect and regard for Lee. Everybody realized that Lee had battled as far as possible. He had an extraordinary impact over the South, thusly, when Lee requested that his men be in the same class as residents of an assembled country as they had been acceptable warriors in war, they concurred entire generously. His thoughts dismissed numerous Southerners from their sentiments of despise and retribution toward collaboration and harmony (Alexander 320). After the war, the South understood that subjection was excessively costly. The day after the acquiescence, Lee told Grant, The South was presently rather than human servitude as the North (Alexander 320). The main problem between the North and South had been settled. On the off chance that Robert. E. Lee needed to keep battling the common war, he could have with much help. Lee was cherished profoundly by his warriors, and they would have battled with him as far as possible. That Lee was adored by his military it is not really important to state, colossally darling, dearest as barely any commanders have ever been (Bradford 82). Remains armed force confided in him and his choices. They followed his requests and would have followed the request to remain and battle. Lee caused the South to understand that the Civil War was really a war between sibling, not a war between adversaries. In the event that Lee had called for all the more battling, the history books would be recounting more carnage and division between the North and the South. After the war, Lee turned down proposals to turn into an official and carry on with an incredible remainder in a well off manner. Rather, he became leader of Washington and Lee University. Here, he showed new Southerners to be Patriotic, faithful residents of an assembled country (Alexander 320). Lee didn't win the Civil War for the South. He made it conceivable, however, for the North to rejoin in fellowship and solidarity. He made it feasible for the North and South to make the best country ever. Without a doubt, individuals can see that he had a considerably more significant effect than being only an incredible general in the most noticeably terrible war in American history. Catalog:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Create a research portrait of a well-known artist, explain how his or Essay

Make an examination picture of a notable craftsman, clarify how their work reacts to specific social issues - Essay Example ject, requiring the craftsman to go through years painting in wet mortar instead of taking a shot at his model or different activities, some may think about what provoked Michelangelo to attempt this undertaking as opposed to permitting some other craftsman the questionable respect. Exactly how much opportunity Michelangelo had in this choice is a regularly talked about point. It may likewise be pondered whether the subject of the composition was dictated by Michelangelo himself or the Pope who charged him for the task. To all the more completely welcome the procedure that added to the making of the Sistine Ceiling, it is important to comprehend the insights about the commission of the task, why it was appointed, why Michelangelo acknowledged the commission given the troubles in question, how he met these difficulties given the media and subject required just as his last evaluation of the outcomes. It is generally acknowledged that Pope Julius II charged Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel roof as none other had the force and position to drive the craftsman back to Rome. Michelangelo had fled the city just two years sooner after the Pope originally charged him to make around 40 models in the most sumptuous Papal tomb intended to date and afterward would not respect his part of the agreement. Likewise, the work being mentioned of Michelangelo was painting as opposed to form which he liked. Different records demonstrate having the roof finished by Michelangelo was the possibility of Donato Bramante, who expected to dishonor Michelangelo’s overwhelming notoriety. â€Å"In Michelangelo’s eyes, Bramante had convinced the pope to surrender the venture [of the tomb] by notice him that it was misfortune to have one’s tomb cut during one’s lifetime, and had then proposed a through and through various commission for the artist, an errand at which he real ized Michelangelo couldn't in any way, shape or form succeed† (King, 2003, p. 11). Work started on the undertaking in 1536 under Pope Paul III and was

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

The Different Types of Doomsday Phobias

The Different Types of Doomsday Phobias Phobias Types Print The Different Types of Doomsday Phobias By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Updated on September 23, 2019 Ruben Antolin / Getty Images More in Phobias Types Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment Doomsday phobias are a broad category of phobias that can encompass any fear of the end of the world. Some people fear plague, others nuclear holocaust, while other people are afraid of Armageddon. Doomsday phobias are surprisingly common, occurring in some form in virtually every corner of the world. These phobias can be loosely categorized in several types. Two of the most common are technology phobias and religious phobias. Doomsday Technology Phobias Who could forget the global panic over what was termed the Millennium Bug or Y2K? People of all walks of life, including some highly respected scientists and engineers, became convinced that the world’s computer systems would be permanently halted or destroyed on January 1, 2000. The science behind the dilemma seemed sound. The theory was that early computers were programmed to accept only two digits rather than four-digit dates. Meanwhile, 00 is not a recognized entry in binary computer language, leading to system failure in many cases. According to this theory, then, when the year rolled over from 99 to 00, the computers would crash. Of course, the Millennium Bug proved nothing more than hype. Most high-powered computer systems already accepted four-digit dates. Those that did not were mostly reprogrammed well in advance, and even among home computers, very little actually happened to affect the data stream. So what was the Y2K scare really? Was it a collective outpouring of a primitive doomsday phobia, or a simple case of mass hysteria? The latest example of widespread technology phobia surrounds the atom-smasher, which was turned on in September of 2008. Prior to its successful launch, many predicted that the device would create black holes and strangelets, simultaneously choking and collapsing the entire planet. Perhaps doomsday phobias are related to the fear of the unknown. Most of us do not fully understand today’s technology, from the inner workings of our personal computers to the consequences of forcing proton beams to collide. Fueled by science fiction films, it is easy for our imaginations to go into overdrive. We consider worst-case scenarios, and what could be worse than the utter destruction of not only ourselves but life as we know it? Technophobia and the Fear of New Technology Doomsday Religious Phobias Religion is a highly personalized system of beliefs, largely based on faith. Holy books such as the Bible contain a great deal of mystical writing and parables, the meanings of which have been debated by scholars throughout the ages. In the modern world, most people have chosen to balance religion with science, seeking interpretations of sections such as Revelations that make sense against a larger frame of reference. However, many people believe that these sections are meant to be taken literally. If this is the case, then the End Times will be extremely scary. It is easy to see how a belief in the literal interpretation of religious writings could develop into a phobia. Doomsday phobias with a religious bent could be related to death phobias (thanatophobia), particularly in those who are questioning their faith. Someone who is from a religious background but has begun to question its teachings could easily develop a phobia of finding out the truth through death. How Does Religion Cause Different Phobias? Popular Culture Since doomsday phobias are relatively common, they are often exploited in popular culture. The best-known example is the 1938 radio broadcast War of the Worlds. This live broadcast claimed to follow an alien invasion that was occurring in New York City. The broadcast was heard across the United States, and mass panic ensued. Nearly 60 years later, the made for television movie Without Warning, with a similar premise, caused another minor breakout of fear and panic. Doomsday fears continue to be exploited today. The 2008 Universal Pictures film Doomsday focuses on the aftermath of a deadly virus outbreak, preying on our collective fear of unstoppable illness transmission. At Universal Orlando’s Halloween Horror Nights 2008, a haunted house based on the film will give guests the chance to confront this fear up close. Doomsday Phobia or Mass Hysteria? It can be difficult to differentiate a legitimate doomsday phobia from the effects of mass hysteria. Groupthink” is a documented phenomenon that occurs when members of a group begin to conform to the majority opinion without critically evaluating information for themselves. In a panic situation, this can lead to an evolving hysteria. Mass hysteria generally subsides when the feared situation passes. In the above pop culture examples, the panic eased when information was disseminated explaining that the threat was not real. If you have a legitimate doomsday phobia, it will not be limited to a specific event or situation. Instead, your fear will persist. You will become afraid whenever any situation arises that involves your specific phobia. You may find yourself dwelling on the topic of doomsday and going out of your way to seek comfort or protection. Treatments for Doomsday Phobias If you have a doomsday phobia, it is important to seek professional help. The phobia is treatable but can worsen over time. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a popular treatment for doomsday phobias. The goal of this type of therapy is to help you replace your fearful self-talk with more positive messages. If your phobia is severe, you may also be prescribed medications. A variety of medications are used to treat phobias, including antidepressants and anti-anxiety medicines. Your mental health professional will work with you to develop a treatment plan that is right for you.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

What Would Go Through Your Head At The Moment Of Death

What would go through your head at the moment of death? Would it be your family, a love one, or a special person in your life or maybe a friend? What if you had to be with a love on the moment of their death? What would go through your head at the exact moment? Would you regret not spending enough time with them? In these two stories by Porter and Dickinson they talk about the moment of death. Both are very similar but different in many ways. Dickson s poem, it s a poem about a woman who had already passed away when she heard a buzz, unlike the short story by Porter which is about a woman who is about to pass away but is in refusal of death. The poem Dickson wrote about was as if it were our protagonist ghost telling us about the fly she heard on the far side of her grave. Unlike Porter’s short story which was told to us by the woman who is close to death. In the short story by Porter her state of denial is more like a must, she wasn t ready to pass and believed that the doctor should care for someone who was actually sick, trying to say she didn t need that care. Her state of denial was too strong that all she could think about was the man whom she has always loved. In the poem by Dickinson there seems to be a connection between the fly she hears buzzing and her death, which in a sense is quite spooky. Maybe it connects in a way because flies seem to be around bad odors and when someone dies, there body begins to smell and flies begin to come around. Throughout herShow MoreRelatedThink Before You Act763 Words   |  4 PagesThink Before You Act Everyday someone loses a person dear to them. You never know if it will be your last day here in this world. We all just live day to day and don’t realize tomorrow could be our last. It’s even worse when it could have been prevented. Choices we make can impact our lives and individuals around us. People say things happen for a reason, and that God has a plan for all of us. We won’t know the truth until something tragic happens each of us. June 24, 2011 was the dayRead MoreUpon his grandfathers death, it fell to Samuel to sort through former possessions. Samuel found1200 Words   |  5 Pagesgrandfathers death, it fell to Samuel to sort through former possessions. Samuel found himself now in the dusty, cobwebbed attic of the old home, surrounded by a constellation of aged trinkets: faded old photographs, medals and trophies from long distant contests, a plethora of dusty and worthless relics. Samuel quickly surveyed the items, shuffling through boxes and turning the occasional object over in his hand. It was depressing, sorting through this collection. It reminded him of death and the ephemeralityRead MoreVII: Cruelty Bang. The bullet shot forward, progressing a great distance in the blink of an1100 Words   |  5 Pageseye. The bullet penetrate a hollow and fit through the heart, enervating Lucias life quickly. Megumareta beamed from above, an inhumane smile. Lucia coughed out blood, his soon-to-be-corpse slumped against the reddish wall lit from torches. Luci, you frittered a myriad of my bullets . . . . Megumareta muttered. Lucia gave out another cough. T-ten bullets--- a cough delayed his sentence, ---is barely--- Oh, shush Luci. Youre about to join your army in this morgue I made. Why not take itRead MoreThe Battle Of The Kosovo War1379 Words   |  6 PagesThe first battle of the Kosovo war which was meticulously planned with stomach revolting malice was less than a mile from my house and it resulted in the death of over 50 members of the Jashari family. As the Serbian Army surrounded the three homes the Jashari’s began to prepare for the onslaught that was to come. Although less than 20 men had arms they valiantly defended their house, their land, and most importantly their family from a determined and well organize Army. These men, farmers by tradeRead MoreHow My Life Has Changed My Outlook On Life881 Words   |  4 Pagesthink that your life could change from one minute to the next? I sat on the couch waiting for the news that would change my outlook on life. I had a pit in my stomach before there was even news to tell. I knew this news was coming for a long time, but I did not k now how. My world was going how any 15-year-old would want it to go. A loving family, nice friends, and all the free time in the world. What I did not know was that was all about to change. I was laying on the couch with my head buried deepRead MoreNarrative Essay-Near Death Experience1671 Words   |  7 PagesA Cold Sad End It’s occasionally said that human beings are the only creatures who are aware of their own death, but is this actually true? The term death is often used lightly and has been made into something of an unimportant subject. Fact of the matter is that many of us don’t want to think about death, we live in a death denying culture. Few individuals truly grasp the concept of death and how it can distort the lives of the people it comes in contact with. I was among the naà ¯ve until rightRead MoreShort Story1250 Words   |  5 Pages As the life ebbed far from me, I abruptly felt a tear descend my cheek. I didnt get it. I was prepared for this for quite a while. I was prepared to desert everything in a world that had utilized me and given nothing back. I was prepared to go on the following incredible enterprise, prepared to be a stain out and about. At that point why was I crying? I opened my eyes and the appropriate response came to me. I took a gander at the substance of the oblivious lady. She was wonderful, in a kindRead MoreThe Chief Led The Way As They Left The Hut1412 Words   |  6 Pages The chief led the way as they left the hut. They passed through the doorway, and the outside light blinded Daniel. It took a few seconds for his eyes to adjust, but when they did, Daniel could see many huts like the one he was just in. the tribe had placed the huts in a wide circle, surrounding a large fire pit made of stone. They dragged Daniel a few feet away, past the fire pit to a large wooden pillar which stuck straight out of the ground. As Daniel got closer, he noticed a lifeless figureRead MoreMovie Review : Brotherly Love864 Words   |  4 Pagestheaters in a cape saving the public from a never ending trilogy of movies similar to The Notebook. In all honesty, it seems like Hollywood adapted Nicholas Sparks as the go to author to adapt story plots from. Whenever a new romantic film came out you can get bet your bottom dollar to sit through a film of old lovers who reconnected through a weird circumstance and spend the whole film trying to get back. The director, Jamal Hill took it upon himself to create a film that single handedly brought backRead MoreShort Story: Serena ´s Relationship with Ric1625 Words   |  6 Pagesget, he has this protective manner, he did not like seeing Serena seeing herself in a negative light, and often challenged her thoughts. Keeping, the distance between, seemed the sensible thing to do, he stayed with her overnight as she asked, he would leave if she wanted to spend to herself, and she knew she was giving him a real mix of messages. Yet, the love between them still shone strong. She needed Ric, but she did not want to admit weakness, and Ric needed her, Serena had become a priority

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Human Trafficking A Form Of Modern Day Slavery - 1339 Words

Trafficking in persons or TIP, â€Å"is a form of modern day slavery† (Women’s Bureau 2002). â€Å"Traffickers often prey on individuals who are poor; frequently unemployed, or underemployed, and who may lack access to social safety nets. Victims are often lured by traffickers with false promises of good jobs and better lives, and then forced to work under brutal and inhumane conditions†(Attorney General). TIP â€Å"involves the use of violence, threats or deception to create a pliant and exploitable work force† (UNODC 2010) and includes two broad categories: (1) indenture of undocumented workers who are brought into bonded servitude; and (2) trade in persons for the commercial sex industry. Both often involve the manipulation of persons with promises of legitimate employment. According to U.S federal law, â€Å"human trafficking involves the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of forced labor or se rvices through the means of force, fraud or coercion. Sex trafficking occurs when a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or when the person induced to perform such acts is under the age of 18† (Office for the Victims of Crime). Trafficking differs from alien smuggling, which seeks short-term gain by aiding undocumented persons to gain entry to a country. The relationship with the smuggler ends when the alien reached his or her destination; human trafficking seeks a continuing exploitive relationship. To put inShow MoreRelatedHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Form Of Slavery Essay1698 Words   |  7 PagesHuman Trafficking: The Modern-Day Form of Slavery Laura Gomez Case Western Reserve University On October 6, 2016, the CEO of the Backpage.com was arrested in Texas on allegations of sex trafficking and pimping involving underage victims (Fernandez, 2016). In Los Angeles, 153 prostitution-related arrests were made along with the rescue of 10 victims forced into the sex trade (Evans, 2016). A human trafficking sting in Texas, headed by McLennan County Sherriff s Office and the Homeland SecurityRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is A Modern Day Form Of Slavery1393 Words   |  6 PagesDo you know what human trafficking is? Well, human trafficking is just another name for modern slavery.   Different medias, like television shows and movies, make it look like human trafficking only happens in foreign countries or to foreign citizens.   That however, is dangerously untrue.   It is one of the biggest crime industries in America, behind drug and arms dealing.   It’s happening right in our backyard, human trafficking is extremely prevalent in big American cities and states w ith internationalRead MoreHuman Trafficking : A Modern Day Form Of Slavery1591 Words   |  7 PagesHuman trafficking is a billion dollar industry and is arguably the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world. It exists in every country. It’s victims are both old and young, black and white, and spans every socioeconomic bracket. The Department of Homeland Security defines human trafficking as, ‘a modern-day form of slavery involving the illegal trade of people for exploitation or commercial gain’ (What Is Human Trafficking?). While people are trafficked for a majority of reasons, the mostRead MoreHuman Trafficking And Trafficking : A Modern Day Form Of Slavery Essay1068 Words   |  5 PagesHuman smuggling and trafficking: Did you know that women make up 66% of the worldwide trafficking victims? The victim is usually aged 8-18, and some are as young as 4 or 5. Human trafficking and smuggling is becoming the world’s largest crime in the world. People that are caught up in these horrible crimes either end up in jail if caught, or dead. Trafficking is a compared to a modern-day form of slavery as it involves the exploitation of unwilling people through force. Karla Jacinto was one ofRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is A Form Of Modern Day Slavery1147 Words   |  5 Pages Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery that involves the buying and selling of human beings. Although human trafficking is highly illegal The United Nations estimate that 2.5 people are trafficked every year (2008). Most victims of human trafficking are from Asia, Slavic European nations and Central America (Thio Taylor 2011).These victims may be tricked into leaving their countries with false promises of a better life. Once imprisoned the victims are told they now have large debtsRead MoreHuman Trafficking : A Modern Day Form Of Slavery1232 Words   |  5 Pages Human trafficking is a worldwide issue that continues to pose problems to many countries including the United States of America. As technology continue to improve, it is very easy for a pimp or trafficker to sit in one state and connect with a victim in another state. People are been trafficked for many reasons, one of which is sex. As victims of sex trafficking suffers with emotional, physical, sexua l and psychological abuse and manipulation, they are often afraid to report their traffickersRead MoreHuman Trafficking : A Form Of Modern Day Slavery2259 Words   |  10 PagesLiu Mrs. D English 3 5/9/2016 Issue on Human Trafficking Stott and Ramey stated in their journal: â€Å"Human Trafficking described as a form of modern-day slavery, human trafficking tremendously violates the rights of its victims. Human trafficking is quickly becoming one of the fastest-growing business of organized crime. Bales and Lize explained that human trafficking is a means by which people are brought into as well as maintained in, slavery and forced labor. It is an actual process of enslavement†Read MoreHuman Trafficking : A Form Of Modern Day Slavery1394 Words   |  6 PagesHuman trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery, is the third largest money making venture in the world; 2.5 million out of 8.1 million of forced labor are sex trafficked and 1.7 million of women and girls are in commercial sexual exploitation (Stone 320). When it comes to human trafficking, it can happen to anyone and anywhere. Many female victims are sexually exploited because women and girls under the age of 18 are lured and misled by promises of e mployment, leaving their home and considerationRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is The Modern Day Form Of Slavery1845 Words   |  8 PagesHuman Trafficking in America Cindy Vann Term Paper for Social Science 180 Diversity in the United States On-line Course # 71032 Submitted to: Professor Leal November 14, 2015 CERTIFICATION I hereby certify that: this term paper, entitled Human Trafficking in the United States, is exclusively the result of my own original library research, thinking, and writing. I wrote this paper for Social Science 180 to satisfy the requirement. No part of the paper was copied or paraphrasedRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is A Form Of Modern Day Slavery1568 Words   |  7 PagesModern Times Slaves Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery where its perpetrators profit from control, exploitation, coercion and defrauding of others through forced labor, or sexual exploitation and in some cases both. Sexual exploitation is the most prevalent form of human trafficking especially in the United States. Even though accurate statistics are rare in this field, those currently existing approximate that massive numbers of women and girls are sold for sexual exploitation within

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham Free Essays

string(171) " for this reason that necessary intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to help reduce the rates of tuberculosis among individuals living in Newham\." 1.Introduction Tuberculosis is a very serious infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs, causing cough and breathing difficulties. The infection also causes systemic effects including fever, night sweats and weight loss (Ellner, 2011). We will write a custom essay sample on An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham or any similar topic only for you Order Now In some cases, the infection can spread beyond the lungs and affect the bone/joints, lymph nodes, abdomen and blood stream (Ormerod, 2003). The disease is caused by the bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis (WHO, 2014), which is spread through respiratory droplets. These droplets are passed when an infected individual coughs or sneezes and the droplets become inhaled by another person (NHS, 2014). Despite this easy method of transmission, tuberculosis is not readily transmitted, and therefore is most likely to affect those in close contact such as family or household members (Castillo-Chavez Feng). Tuberculosis represents a significant risk of morbidity and mortality and represents a significant cost to society to treat and manage. Tuberculosis has particularly shown to be a problem in cities, whereby the rates of increase are greater than those of rural areas (Anderson et al. 2006). This essay will address the reasons as to why tuberculosis affects urban areas (the sick city hypothesis), and look in to why tuberculosis contributes to this urban health penalty. As an exemplar of an urban environment suffering from the burden of tuberculosis, this essay will focus on the London borough of Newham. Newham has a tuberculosis rate 8 times higher than the national average and 3 times that of London. This essay aims to investigate the aetiology behind the incidence, and to find ways of reducing the rates of tuberculosis among individuals in the London borough of Newham. The paper will include the intervention strategies and how they should be implemented in order to reduce the rates of new infections and encourage men to get tested and get early treatment before the spread of infection. 2.Tuberculosis in an Urban Environment Tuberculosis tends to be regarded as a problem of the past, and was responsible for 20-30% of all mortality in 17th-19th century Europe (Dye Williams, 2010). The incidence of tuberculosis declined throughout the 20th century (Watson Maguire, 1997), however, the disease has been slowly returning to London since the 1980’s (Great Britain 2008, p. 19). The problem seems to be worsening in urban areas. This is illustrated by the example of London, where 3,302 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2010 (Fullman Strachan 2013, p. 25), a figure that has more than doubled since 1992 (Anderson et al 2006). In 2006, the incidence of tuberculosis in London was 41.5 people in 100,000, a figure that represented the highest number of new cases in any major city in Western Europe (Anderson et al, 2006). Dyer (2010, p. 34) claims that the London borough of Newham is the most affected with some people already referring to it as the TB capital of the affluent western world. In fact , the rates of tuberculosis in Newham are currently higher than that in some impoverished countries. Vassall (2009, p. 48) suggest that Newham has 108 cases per 100,000 and Anderson et al suggest a 2001 figure of 116/100,000, figures that are more than half that in India (174 cases per 100,000) (Public Health England, 2012). Newham has a population of 308,000 with a population density of 85.1 per hectare as compared to 31 in central London (UK Census, 2012). These figures suggest that even in the populated city of London, Newham is an area of urbanisation, with a large number of people concentrated into a relatively small area. The increase of tuberculosis has been described as a ‘penalty for high density urban living’ (Dye 2010, p.859), likely due to the increased potential for transmission in overcrowding, and the increased rates of immigration to inner-city areas. Bhunu and Mushavabasa (2012) propose that tuberculosis thrives in conditions of overcrowding and poverty, issues that are common in urban areas. The high rates of tuberculosis in cities such as London, and areas of urbanization such as Newham, suggest that the incidence of tuberculosis is indeed an urban issue. Newham fulfills the criteria of high immigration rates and being an area of deprivation.. Newham has a diverse ethnic population, with 61% of the people being non-white (Farrar Manson 2013, p. 54). The population of ethnic minorities continues to grow along with the increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers in greater London. Another aspect of urbanisation illustrated in the borough of Newham is that of deprivation and overcrowding. Farrar Manson (2013, p. 16) claim that Newham ranks as the third most deprived borough in inner London. Most of the people here live in tower housing and overcrowded conditions that are the perfect condition for the spread of tuberculosis. There is a positive correlation between poor housing and poverty and the prevalence of tuberculosis, which is very clear in Newham as evidenced by the findings of 108 and 116 cases per 100,000 people (Vassal, 2009; Anderson et al., 2001). The aetiology of the issue of tuberculosis is highlighted when considering the distribution of the disease across Newham. The occurrence of disease is not evenly spread across the borough, with 70% of cases coming from Manor Park, Green Street and East Ham. These boroughs represent areas of population increase, overcrowding and higher levels of those living in poverty. Manor Park and Green Street also show differing dynamics of tuberculosis incidence, representing an overall increase of 40% since 2006 whilst all other areas of Newham either remained static or showed slight decrease (Malone et al 2009, p. 23). It can be seen that tuberculosis presents a significant urban issue, especially when comparing incidence in an urban area such as Newham to those less urbanised areas. Bromley has a population of 309,000 and a population density of 20 per hectare, in comparison to Newham’s population density of 80 per hectare (UK Census, 2012). Tuberculosis incidence in Bromley is between 0-19 per 100,000 compared to that of Newham, which is five times greater at 80-100 per 100,000 (Anderson et al., 2006). It is for this reason that necessary intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to help reduce the rates of tuberculosis among individuals living in Newham. You read "An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham" in category "Essay examples" 3. The Influence of Urbanisation on Tuberculosis Incidence While the global rates of tuberculosis are declining, the disease is showing steady increase in the United Kingdom. In 2012, 8751 new cases of the disease were identified in the country with 39% coming from London (Fullman and Strachan 2013, p. 43). Indeed London has the highest rates of the disease in Western Europe with Newham borough having the highest rates in the UK. Jindal (2011, p. 55) claims that the rate of tuberculosis in some London boroughs is more than twice higher than the threshold used by the world health organisation to define high rates. These higher incidences support the notion of a sick city hypothesis where there are greater levels of ill health than in rural areas, and may be due to the presence of factors in an urban environment that contribute to ill health (an urban health penalty). One factor that may contribute to the urban health penalty is that of immigration. Cities are easier to access than rural areas, provide areas of congregation and provide more facilities for immigrating families and individuals. The majority of individuals suffering from tuberculosis are people born outside the United Kingdom, with 75% of cases in 2003 being born abroad (Anderson et al., 2006). A reason for the high incidence in those born abroad but now living in the UK is exacerbated by the nature of tuberculosis. On initial infection, tuberculosis is confined by the immune system with only around 5% of cases experiencing symptoms within the first two years of infection (Narasimhan et al., 2013). The remainder of cases harbour a latent infection which may reactivate later in life, with about 10-15% of those infected going on to develop an active disease (Narasimhan et al., 2013). This insidious nature combined with the later activation of the disease explains why many people do not get the disease until later in life. It is likely that it is contracted in their country of birth, however then manifests much later once they have moved to the UK. Statistics indicate that over 90% of the residents in Newham diagnosed with the disease in 2011 were born outside the United Kingdom (Fullman and Strachan, 2013, p. 33). Among these, 50% arrived in the country in the last five years. In the same year tuberculosis diagnosis increased by 25% compared to 2010 (Fullman and Strachan, 2013), possibly as a reflection of the increased immigration. Additionally to a high immigrant population bringing significant disease burden from their countries of birth, London and Newham both represent many of the other issues of urbanisation and urban health penalty that can contribute to the high incidence of tuberculosis. Studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (Campbell and Spector, 2012; Chan, 1999). This is an important association in urban populations, as the living and working conditions foster less access to sunlight (the major source of vitamin D). Additionally, Asian immigrants present a problem of low vitamin D due to vegetarian diets, and a tendency to cover up their skin, not allowing to take advantage of the small amount of sunlight available (Chan, 1999). As previously mentioned, Newham is an area of both high urbanisation and with a large immigrant population, and 38.6% of the population being of Asian descent (London Borough of Newham, 2010). The immigrant population of urban areas such as Newham also present a non-vaccinated proportion of society. Whilst the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis was introduced in the UK in the 1950s and was shown to provide a reduction in risk of contracting tuberculosis (Colditz et al., 1994), those immigrating were less likely to receive this vaccination on moving to the UK. London also represents cases of tuberculosis that are socially and medically complex. As a hugely populated area, London includes those with HIV infection and presents other risk factors such as onward transmission and poor treatment. HIV is one of the most powerful risk factors for tuberculosis, with a incidence rate of 20 times higher in those that are HIV positive (Dye and Williams, 2010). People’s attitudes towards and access to healthcare also present a complex mix of factors which contribute to an increased incidence of many health problems, including that of tuberculosis. Those in impoverished areas have reduced access to healthcare, which may stem from many reasons such as complex needs, chaotic lifestyles, location of services, user ignorance, and language and literacy barriers (Szczepura, 2005). These can affect the disease process of tuberculosis from prevention, treatment of active disease, adherence to treatment and prevention of the health consequences. Especially problematic are misconceptions and a lack of understanding of the disease, leading to late presentation and delayed access to treatment (Figuera-Munoz and Ramon-Pardo, 2008) With the close living quarters in areas such as Newham, the spread of tuberculosis is facilitated. With poverty, poor housing and overcrowding, these areas concentrate several risk factors and lead to a greater spread of tuberculosis (Bates et al., 2004). These determinants therefore suggest that the incidence of tuberculosis in urban areas is a complex issue. Controlling and preventing tuberculosis in London requires effective social and economic tools that must be incorporated in the development of policies of control in treatment initiation. 4. Consequences and implications of tuberculosis on the general population Tuberculosis ranks with HIV/ AIDS and Malaria as one of the three main health challenges currently facing the world. The Commonwealth Health Ministers Update 2009 (2009, p. 41) indicates that 8 million new cases are reported globally each year. As previously mentioned, when combined with HIV, tuberculosis can prove lethal as the two diseases enhance the progress of each other. It is for this reason that tuberculosis is the major cause of death among HIV patients with the rate standing at 11% globally. The World Health Organization (2009, p. 27) indicates that tuberculosis is responsible for more deaths today than ever before, with approximately 2 million lives claimed by the disease annually. As well as the significant mortality contributed by tuberculosis, the morbidity of the disease can be extremely detrimental both socially and economically. Those with the active disease that are not receiving treatment have been shown to go on to infect 10-15 others every year (WHO, 1998). Those who do receive treatment face a long (up to six months) and complex treatment regime involving several medication side effects. This can affect adherence to the treatment regime, and lead to the disease developing a resistance to the treatment, with this drug resistant tuberculosis contributing to greater mortality and increased expense to treat (Ahlburg, 2000). As well as the significant morbidity and mortality, it is important to consider the economic impact of tuberculosis. The World Health Organisation estimated the cost to treat tuberculosis in 2000 as $250,000 US dollars (?150,000) in developed countries (Ahlburg, 2000). This presents a significant burden to the UK NHS, not to mention the time lost through not working which can dent the economy. London is a global world trade centre whose economy is shaped by global forces, particularly in terms of trade, labour and capital. As a gateway to both the UK and other parts of Europe and the rest of the world, London records a very large number of tourists and immigrant populations. This high number of people accelerates the spread of the disease as people carry it to the country from other parts of the world is indicated by the new infection patterns and is highlighted by the prevalence in immigrant populations. 5. Strategies and intervention for addressing tuberculosis Current UK guidelines for tuberculosis intervention were made by NICE in 2006 (updated 2011). The recommendations propose strategies for identifying those with latent (non-active) tuberculosis to prevent spread or reactivation and also specify criteria for treatment (NICE, 2011). Those recommended for screening for latent tuberculosis include close contacts of infected individuals, immigrants from high incidence countries, immunocompromised individuals, and healthcare workers. Whilst this strategy targets prevention of the spread of tuberculosis, they are only targeting specific groups, and it is likely in high incidence areas such as Newham, people will slip through the net. These guidelines have only changed minimally since 2006, and since then tuberculosis incidence has been on the increase in areas such as Newham, suggesting that changes may need to be made. High incidence areas of the UK such as Newham could learn from New York experience and copy the strategy it used in dealing with the disease. With the implementation of broadened initial treatment regimes, direct observed therapy, and improved guidelines for hospital control and disease prevention, the city managed to halt the progression of an epidemic (Frieden et al., 1995). As mentioned in the previous chapter, adherence to the lengthy treatment regime as well as a lack of understanding may contribute to the spread of tuberculosis. Directly observed therapy (DOT) involves observing the patient take each dose of their medication, with outreach workers travelling to their homes. Evidence from New York showed that through DOT, only 3% of patients in therapy were infectious, compared to a proposed 20% if not receiving DOT (Frieden et al., 1995). Current UK guidelines (NICE, 2006) do not recommend DOT, although they do state that it may be used in cases of patients with previous issues with adherence or at high risk. Although an expensive and time consuming process, if DOT can reduce infectious cases, this would also work as a preventative measure. There could be one allocated outreach nurse for the borough of Newham and other high-risk areas. Another method implemented in New York was the downsizing of large shelters for the homeless. These were breeding grounds for tuberculosis, and the subsequent reduction in overcrowding led to a decrease in transmission of the disease (Frieden et al., 1995). Whilst it is not possible to split people up from living with their families in crowded homes in terms of Newham, education about keeping those with tuberculosis from interacting with too many others in crowded conditions may be of benefit. The model should also borrow from those used by other cities like Paris and the rest of Europe in controlling tuberculosis with intervention at the level of the agent, individual and community levels. In Paris, Rieder (2002) suggested that prophylactic treatment could be used to prevent the disease occurring in those at risk, for example those in the household of an identified case of tuberculosis. Additionally, Rieder (2002) proposed that early or neonate vaccination be used especially in those in areas where tuberculosis is frequent, rarely diagnosed, and adequate contact examinations rarely feasible. It may be possible that in cases where lots of people are vaccinated that they may infer herd immunity and thus protect unvaccinated individuals from the disease. Once the populations have been protected and the incidence (number of new cases) of tuberculosis has been reduced, this allows for a reduction in the prevalence of tuberculosis (number of ongoing cases at any one point in time) with preventative chemotherapy that can treat sub-clinical, latent tuberculosis in the population. This preventative chemotherapy is likely to be extremely relevant to Newham due to the large immig rant population likely harbouring latent tuberculosis. On a country- or city-wide scale, these recommendations from New York and Paris provide excellent models for preventing the increase of tuberculosis any further. It is also important, however, to consider the individual communities in Newham, and to promote health awareness and an attitude towards taking responsibility for their health. Their needs to be an encouragement at the level of primary care where immigrant populations feel that they can approach healthcare, and education to encourage tuberculosis prevention and adherence to treatment. The strategy should be all-inclusive in order to encourage people to not only go for testing but also start and finish the treatment process. 6. Recommendations and conclusion Tuberculosis presents an important urban issue in the area of Newham. Incidence is greater than other areas of the UK, and is over half that of India. There are several factors contributing to this including a large immigrant population, crowding and overpopulation, access to healthcare and comorbid health problems such as vitamin D deficiency and HIV. The disease has considerable effect on morbidity and is responsible for high levels of mortality. Further consequences of the disease manifest as economic problems such as cost of treatment and loss of work. London and the UK already have policies and structures for controlling tuberculosis in place; however the implementation process is patchy across the city, and often dependent upon budget. In high-risk areas such as Newham, there is poor access of healthcare due to inaccurate beliefs on the disease, language and cultural barriers, and complex needs of the population. In the case of tuberculosis, these contribute to poor disease prevention, delayed diagnosis and poor treatment adherence. All of which lead to an increase in transmission and health consequences. The area of Newham would benefit greatly from further education into tuberculosis, how to look for signs and how to get treatment. Encouraging good relationship with healthcare professionals and promoting access to healthcare through outreach programmes and targeting pharmacies may be helpful. Additionally, Newham should look to employ techniques used in New York and Paris, including DOT, prophylactic treatment and neonate vaccination to reduce both the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis. References Ahlburg (2000). The economic impact of TB: ministerial conference Amsterdam, WHO Bates, I., Fenton, C., Gruber, J., Lalloo, D., Lara, A. M., Squire, S. B., †¦ and Tolhurst, R. (2004). ‘Vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS infection and disease. Part II: determinants operating at environmental and institutional level’. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4(6), pp. 368-375. Bhunu, C. P., and Mushayabasa, S. (2012). ‘Assessing the effects of poverty in tuberculosis transmission dynamics’. Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 36(9), pp. 4173-4185. Campbell, G. R., and Spector, S. A. (2012). ‘Vitamin D inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macrophages through the induction of autophagy’. PLoS pathogens, vol. 8(5). Castillo-Chavez, C., and Feng, Z. (1997). ‘To treat or not to treat: the case of tuberculosis. Journal of mathematical biology’, vol. 35(6), pp. 629-656. Colditz, G. A., Brewer, T. F., Berkey, C. S., Wilson, M. E., Burdick, E., Fineberg, H. V., and Mosteller, F. (1994). ‘Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosismeta-analysis of the published literature’. Jama, vol. 271(9), pp. 698-702. Commonwealth Health Ministers Update 2009. (2009). Commonwealth Secretarial. Dye, C., and Williams, B. G. (2010). ‘The population dynamics and control of tuberculosis’. Science, vol 328(5980), pp. 856-861. Dyer, C. A. (2010). Tuberculosis. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: vol332. Farrar, J., Manson, P. (2013). Manson’s tropical diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Figueroa-Munoz, J. I., Ramon-Pardo, P. (2008). Tuberculosis control in vulnerable groups. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86(9), 733-735. Frieden, T. R., Fujiwara, P. I., Washko, R. M., and Hamburg, M. A. (1995). ‘Tuberculosis in New York City—turning the tide’. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333(4), pp. 229-233. Fullman, J., Strachan, D. (2013). Frommer’s London 2013. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Great Britain. (2008). Diseases know no frontiers: How effective are intergovernmental organisations in controlling their spread; 1st report of session, 2007-08. London: Stationery Office. Jindal, S. K. (2011). Textbook of pulmonary and critical care medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. London Borough of Newham, (2010). Community Leaders and Engagement, Manor Park Community Forum Profile [Online], Available:http://www.newham.info/research/CFProfiles/ManorPark.pdf [12 April 2014]. Malone, C., Beasley, R. P., Bressler, J., Graviss, E. A., Vernon, S. W., University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health. (2009). Trends in anti-tuberculosis drug resistance from 2003–2007 at Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. (Masters Abstracts International, 47-5.) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2006) [Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control]. [CG117]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ormerod, L.P. (2003) ‘Nonrespiratory tuberculosis. In Davies PDO (Ed) Clinical Tuberculosis. Third Edition. Arnold: London. pp. 125-153. Public Health England (2012), World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of tuberculosis incidence by rate, 2012 (sorted by rate). [Online] Available at: http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317140584841 [12 April 2014]. Rieder, H. A. (2002). Interventions for Tuberculosis Control, 1st edn. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France. Szczepura, A. (2005). ‘Access to health care for ethnic minority populations’. Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 81(953), pp. 141-147. Vassall, A., University of Amsterdam. (2009). The Costs and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Watson, J. M., and Maguire. H.C (1997). ‘PHLS work on the surveillance and epidemiology of tuberculosis.’ Communicable disease report. CDR review 7.8, pp. R110-2. World Health Organization. (2009). Global tuberculosis control: Epidemiology, strategy, financing : WHO report 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organisation (2014). Tuberculosis. [Online], Available: http://www.who.int/topics/tuberculosis/en/ [12 April 2014] UK Census (2012), UK Census Data, [Online]. http://www.ukcensusdata.com/newham-e09000025#sthash.51Phmj6a.dpbs [12 April 2014] How to cite An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Systems University Libraries Chhattisgarh â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Systems University Libraries Chhattisgarh? Answer: Introducation The current system that is being followed at the library has a lot many flaws in terms of operations and management. It is not possible for the management to keep a track of the members and the videos that are borrowed by them. Management of loans has also become difficult to track with the increase in the number of members. Due to the issues in the current system, the members are beginning to look out for similar business units in the area. It is due to the reason that they are not satisfied by the services that are being provided to them which leads to deterioration of revenues for the organization. An automated library management system that has been proposed will be able to bring back the reduced customer trust and will lead to higher profits and competitive advantage. Data gathering Data Analysis Questionnaire: The technique will allow the project team members to extract the information from the project stakeholders regarding their expectation from the system. A set of questions will be provided to them and their response will be received on the same (Chaleunvong, 2009). Interviews: The project team may also arrange interview sessions with the project stakeholders, such as, library owner and management team so that they may bring forwards their concerns with the current system and their expectations from the new system. Brainstorming Sessions: There may also be group sessions executed to bring out the new concepts and ideas and gather maximum information (Morgan and Harmon, 2011). Automated data analytics tools: These tools may be used by the project team members for automatic analysis of the data and information that is collected using the above three techniques. Data Modeling and Normalization Tbl_Branch Attribute name Data type branchNo Number address String telephone Number manager Number Tbl_Staff Attribute name Data type staffNo Number firstName String lastName String position String salary Number Tbl_Category Attribute name Data type code String name String description String Tbl_Video Attribute name Data type videoNo String copyNo String title String category String dailyRental Number cost Number categoryNo Number Tbl_Customer Attribute name Data type memberNo Number firstName String lastName String street String State String zipcode Number dateOfRegistration Date branch Number Tbl_Publisher Attribute name Data type publicationNo Number firstName String lastName String licenseNo Number city String country String Technical Feasibility The project will have a set of functional and non-functional requirements which will be required to be implemented. There will be a front end and a back end that will be developed for the library management system using PHP as the programming language and MySQL as the database. There will be data analytics tools that will also be required to be integrated in the system along with payment gateways and security tools. All of these functionalities are doable and there will not be any issues in the compatibility between the sub-systems. The project is feasible from the technical aspect (Thompson, 2005). Economical Feasibility There will be various costs that will be associated with the project in terms of cost of the tools, cost of resources and cost of the project activities. The costs will be handled and provided by the project sponsor. Monash Video Library is in business since long and the project sponsor will be able to manage the costs. The project is feasible from the economical aspect (Gis, 2013). Operational Feasibility The features and functionalities that will be implemented in the system will be used by the end-users which would comprise of the members and the administrative department. The system will have a set of support documents so that the users may not get stuck at any point. The project will be feasible from the operational aspect as well. Business Requirement specification Functional Requirements Ability to the member and the admin to login to the system in a secure manner. Ability to the member to view the video catalogue and apply filters on the same. Ability to the member to select a particular video for borrowing. Ability to the member to apply the option of hold on the video to get it later (Ahmed, 2015). Ability to the system to generate alerts for the members before their due date of return. Ability to the admin to view the information on videos that are borrowed by the members. Ability to view the return details by the admin. Ability to extract reports from the system in terms of videos borrowed, returned and pending over a period of time. Ability to manage the member subscriptions by the admin. Non-functional Requirements The library management system must allow the members and the admin to login and use the system at any time and from any location. The performance of the system shall never be compromised with increase in the number of users at the same time. The throughput time and response time shall stay constant. The system shall be scalable so that the new requirements and modifications can be made as per the changing nature of technology and specifications (Chung, 2013). There will be updates that will be required to be installed in future. The system shall allow the ability to easily maintain it. The system shall have good usability and it should match with the functional aspects that are provided to the team members (Eeles, 2012). Business Proposed solution The proposed solution for Monash Video Library is the automated information system for the management of the library operations. There are currently many issues that are seen with the present system in terms of inaccurate information management, slow processing and likewise. These problems will be overcome by the new system as it will automate the activities, such as, login, video borrowing, video returns, report management, member subscriptions etc. It will lead to enhancement of the customer engagement and trust as they will be able to view all the services provided by the library through the system. The flow of operations will also improve along with information handling and management (Kumar, 2014). It will lead to a competitive edge to the library in the market and will also improve upon the revenues and profits that will be earned. Implementation issues There may be certain issues in terms of the implementation of the new system that may be observed. The implementation of the library management system in Monash Video Library will bring in many technical and operational changes for the members of the staff. They may take time to get used to the new system which may lead to the loss in productivity and efficiency levels of the employees. It will be required for the end-users to make them aware about the system functions and features with the medium of training sessions. There may be users who may miss out on these sessions and may face operational challenges as a result. The implementation of the system may also bring in additional costs in case of security attacks or technical failures. These additional costs may be difficult to bear by the project sponsor and may lead to further challenges. Such a system is being implemented for the first time in the library and therefore, it may bring up security risks and attacks. There may be breaching of information along with loss or leakage that may take place. References Ahmed, M. (2015). Management Information Systems in University Libraries of Chhattisgarh. [online] Available at: https://crl.du.ac.in/ical09/papers/index_files/ical-121_185_722_1_PB.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Chaleunvong, K. (2009). Data Collection Techniques. [online] Available at: https://www.gfmer.ch/Activites_internationales_Fr/Laos/PDF/Data_collection_tecniques_Chaleunvong_Laos_2009.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Chung, L. (2013). Non-Functional Requirements. [online] Available at: https://www.utdallas.edu/~chung/SYSM6309/NFR-18-4-on-1.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Eeles, P. (2012). Non-Functional Requirements. [online] Available at: https://www.architecting.co.uk/presentations/NFRs.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Gis (2013). Feasibility analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.gis.geo.uj.edu.pl/Teaching_tool_on_knowledge_transfer/eng/wydruki/pdf/Feasibility%20analysis.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Kumar, P. (2014). Library Management System. [online] Available at: https://dspace.cusat.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/8218/1/library%20management%20system.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Morgan, G. and Harmon, R. (2011). Data Collection Techniques. [online] Available at: https://www.appstate.edu/~steelekm/classes/psy3100/Documents/DataCollection.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Thompson, A. (2005). Business Feasibility Study Online. [online] Available at: https://bestentrepreneur.murdoch.edu.au/Business_Feasibility_Study_Outline.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017].