Saturday, May 23, 2020

What Would Go Through Your Head At The Moment Of Death

What would go through your head at the moment of death? Would it be your family, a love one, or a special person in your life or maybe a friend? What if you had to be with a love on the moment of their death? What would go through your head at the exact moment? Would you regret not spending enough time with them? In these two stories by Porter and Dickinson they talk about the moment of death. Both are very similar but different in many ways. Dickson s poem, it s a poem about a woman who had already passed away when she heard a buzz, unlike the short story by Porter which is about a woman who is about to pass away but is in refusal of death. The poem Dickson wrote about was as if it were our protagonist ghost telling us about the fly she heard on the far side of her grave. Unlike Porter’s short story which was told to us by the woman who is close to death. In the short story by Porter her state of denial is more like a must, she wasn t ready to pass and believed that the doctor should care for someone who was actually sick, trying to say she didn t need that care. Her state of denial was too strong that all she could think about was the man whom she has always loved. In the poem by Dickinson there seems to be a connection between the fly she hears buzzing and her death, which in a sense is quite spooky. Maybe it connects in a way because flies seem to be around bad odors and when someone dies, there body begins to smell and flies begin to come around. Throughout herShow MoreRelatedThink Before You Act763 Words   |  4 PagesThink Before You Act Everyday someone loses a person dear to them. You never know if it will be your last day here in this world. We all just live day to day and don’t realize tomorrow could be our last. It’s even worse when it could have been prevented. Choices we make can impact our lives and individuals around us. People say things happen for a reason, and that God has a plan for all of us. We won’t know the truth until something tragic happens each of us. June 24, 2011 was the dayRead MoreUpon his grandfathers death, it fell to Samuel to sort through former possessions. Samuel found1200 Words   |  5 Pagesgrandfathers death, it fell to Samuel to sort through former possessions. Samuel found himself now in the dusty, cobwebbed attic of the old home, surrounded by a constellation of aged trinkets: faded old photographs, medals and trophies from long distant contests, a plethora of dusty and worthless relics. Samuel quickly surveyed the items, shuffling through boxes and turning the occasional object over in his hand. It was depressing, sorting through this collection. It reminded him of death and the ephemeralityRead MoreVII: Cruelty Bang. The bullet shot forward, progressing a great distance in the blink of an1100 Words   |  5 Pageseye. The bullet penetrate a hollow and fit through the heart, enervating Lucias life quickly. Megumareta beamed from above, an inhumane smile. Lucia coughed out blood, his soon-to-be-corpse slumped against the reddish wall lit from torches. Luci, you frittered a myriad of my bullets . . . . Megumareta muttered. Lucia gave out another cough. T-ten bullets--- a cough delayed his sentence, ---is barely--- Oh, shush Luci. Youre about to join your army in this morgue I made. Why not take itRead MoreThe Battle Of The Kosovo War1379 Words   |  6 PagesThe first battle of the Kosovo war which was meticulously planned with stomach revolting malice was less than a mile from my house and it resulted in the death of over 50 members of the Jashari family. As the Serbian Army surrounded the three homes the Jashari’s began to prepare for the onslaught that was to come. Although less than 20 men had arms they valiantly defended their house, their land, and most importantly their family from a determined and well organize Army. These men, farmers by tradeRead MoreHow My Life Has Changed My Outlook On Life881 Words   |  4 Pagesthink that your life could change from one minute to the next? I sat on the couch waiting for the news that would change my outlook on life. I had a pit in my stomach before there was even news to tell. I knew this news was coming for a long time, but I did not k now how. My world was going how any 15-year-old would want it to go. A loving family, nice friends, and all the free time in the world. What I did not know was that was all about to change. I was laying on the couch with my head buried deepRead MoreNarrative Essay-Near Death Experience1671 Words   |  7 PagesA Cold Sad End It’s occasionally said that human beings are the only creatures who are aware of their own death, but is this actually true? The term death is often used lightly and has been made into something of an unimportant subject. Fact of the matter is that many of us don’t want to think about death, we live in a death denying culture. Few individuals truly grasp the concept of death and how it can distort the lives of the people it comes in contact with. I was among the naà ¯ve until rightRead MoreShort Story1250 Words   |  5 Pages As the life ebbed far from me, I abruptly felt a tear descend my cheek. I didnt get it. I was prepared for this for quite a while. I was prepared to desert everything in a world that had utilized me and given nothing back. I was prepared to go on the following incredible enterprise, prepared to be a stain out and about. At that point why was I crying? I opened my eyes and the appropriate response came to me. I took a gander at the substance of the oblivious lady. She was wonderful, in a kindRead MoreThe Chief Led The Way As They Left The Hut1412 Words   |  6 Pages The chief led the way as they left the hut. They passed through the doorway, and the outside light blinded Daniel. It took a few seconds for his eyes to adjust, but when they did, Daniel could see many huts like the one he was just in. the tribe had placed the huts in a wide circle, surrounding a large fire pit made of stone. They dragged Daniel a few feet away, past the fire pit to a large wooden pillar which stuck straight out of the ground. As Daniel got closer, he noticed a lifeless figureRead MoreMovie Review : Brotherly Love864 Words   |  4 Pagestheaters in a cape saving the public from a never ending trilogy of movies similar to The Notebook. In all honesty, it seems like Hollywood adapted Nicholas Sparks as the go to author to adapt story plots from. Whenever a new romantic film came out you can get bet your bottom dollar to sit through a film of old lovers who reconnected through a weird circumstance and spend the whole film trying to get back. The director, Jamal Hill took it upon himself to create a film that single handedly brought backRead MoreShort Story: Serena ´s Relationship with Ric1625 Words   |  6 Pagesget, he has this protective manner, he did not like seeing Serena seeing herself in a negative light, and often challenged her thoughts. Keeping, the distance between, seemed the sensible thing to do, he stayed with her overnight as she asked, he would leave if she wanted to spend to herself, and she knew she was giving him a real mix of messages. Yet, the love between them still shone strong. She needed Ric, but she did not want to admit weakness, and Ric needed her, Serena had become a priority

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Human Trafficking A Form Of Modern Day Slavery - 1339 Words

Trafficking in persons or TIP, â€Å"is a form of modern day slavery† (Women’s Bureau 2002). â€Å"Traffickers often prey on individuals who are poor; frequently unemployed, or underemployed, and who may lack access to social safety nets. Victims are often lured by traffickers with false promises of good jobs and better lives, and then forced to work under brutal and inhumane conditions†(Attorney General). TIP â€Å"involves the use of violence, threats or deception to create a pliant and exploitable work force† (UNODC 2010) and includes two broad categories: (1) indenture of undocumented workers who are brought into bonded servitude; and (2) trade in persons for the commercial sex industry. Both often involve the manipulation of persons with promises of legitimate employment. According to U.S federal law, â€Å"human trafficking involves the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of forced labor or se rvices through the means of force, fraud or coercion. Sex trafficking occurs when a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or when the person induced to perform such acts is under the age of 18† (Office for the Victims of Crime). Trafficking differs from alien smuggling, which seeks short-term gain by aiding undocumented persons to gain entry to a country. The relationship with the smuggler ends when the alien reached his or her destination; human trafficking seeks a continuing exploitive relationship. To put inShow MoreRelatedHuman Trafficking : Modern Day Form Of Slavery Essay1698 Words   |  7 PagesHuman Trafficking: The Modern-Day Form of Slavery Laura Gomez Case Western Reserve University On October 6, 2016, the CEO of the Backpage.com was arrested in Texas on allegations of sex trafficking and pimping involving underage victims (Fernandez, 2016). In Los Angeles, 153 prostitution-related arrests were made along with the rescue of 10 victims forced into the sex trade (Evans, 2016). A human trafficking sting in Texas, headed by McLennan County Sherriff s Office and the Homeland SecurityRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is A Modern Day Form Of Slavery1393 Words   |  6 PagesDo you know what human trafficking is? Well, human trafficking is just another name for modern slavery.   Different medias, like television shows and movies, make it look like human trafficking only happens in foreign countries or to foreign citizens.   That however, is dangerously untrue.   It is one of the biggest crime industries in America, behind drug and arms dealing.   It’s happening right in our backyard, human trafficking is extremely prevalent in big American cities and states w ith internationalRead MoreHuman Trafficking : A Modern Day Form Of Slavery1591 Words   |  7 PagesHuman trafficking is a billion dollar industry and is arguably the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world. It exists in every country. It’s victims are both old and young, black and white, and spans every socioeconomic bracket. The Department of Homeland Security defines human trafficking as, ‘a modern-day form of slavery involving the illegal trade of people for exploitation or commercial gain’ (What Is Human Trafficking?). While people are trafficked for a majority of reasons, the mostRead MoreHuman Trafficking And Trafficking : A Modern Day Form Of Slavery Essay1068 Words   |  5 PagesHuman smuggling and trafficking: Did you know that women make up 66% of the worldwide trafficking victims? The victim is usually aged 8-18, and some are as young as 4 or 5. Human trafficking and smuggling is becoming the world’s largest crime in the world. People that are caught up in these horrible crimes either end up in jail if caught, or dead. Trafficking is a compared to a modern-day form of slavery as it involves the exploitation of unwilling people through force. Karla Jacinto was one ofRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is A Form Of Modern Day Slavery1147 Words   |  5 Pages Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery that involves the buying and selling of human beings. Although human trafficking is highly illegal The United Nations estimate that 2.5 people are trafficked every year (2008). Most victims of human trafficking are from Asia, Slavic European nations and Central America (Thio Taylor 2011).These victims may be tricked into leaving their countries with false promises of a better life. Once imprisoned the victims are told they now have large debtsRead MoreHuman Trafficking : A Modern Day Form Of Slavery1232 Words   |  5 Pages Human trafficking is a worldwide issue that continues to pose problems to many countries including the United States of America. As technology continue to improve, it is very easy for a pimp or trafficker to sit in one state and connect with a victim in another state. People are been trafficked for many reasons, one of which is sex. As victims of sex trafficking suffers with emotional, physical, sexua l and psychological abuse and manipulation, they are often afraid to report their traffickersRead MoreHuman Trafficking : A Form Of Modern Day Slavery2259 Words   |  10 PagesLiu Mrs. D English 3 5/9/2016 Issue on Human Trafficking Stott and Ramey stated in their journal: â€Å"Human Trafficking described as a form of modern-day slavery, human trafficking tremendously violates the rights of its victims. Human trafficking is quickly becoming one of the fastest-growing business of organized crime. Bales and Lize explained that human trafficking is a means by which people are brought into as well as maintained in, slavery and forced labor. It is an actual process of enslavement†Read MoreHuman Trafficking : A Form Of Modern Day Slavery1394 Words   |  6 PagesHuman trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery, is the third largest money making venture in the world; 2.5 million out of 8.1 million of forced labor are sex trafficked and 1.7 million of women and girls are in commercial sexual exploitation (Stone 320). When it comes to human trafficking, it can happen to anyone and anywhere. Many female victims are sexually exploited because women and girls under the age of 18 are lured and misled by promises of e mployment, leaving their home and considerationRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is The Modern Day Form Of Slavery1845 Words   |  8 PagesHuman Trafficking in America Cindy Vann Term Paper for Social Science 180 Diversity in the United States On-line Course # 71032 Submitted to: Professor Leal November 14, 2015 CERTIFICATION I hereby certify that: this term paper, entitled Human Trafficking in the United States, is exclusively the result of my own original library research, thinking, and writing. I wrote this paper for Social Science 180 to satisfy the requirement. No part of the paper was copied or paraphrasedRead MoreHuman Trafficking Is A Form Of Modern Day Slavery1568 Words   |  7 PagesModern Times Slaves Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery where its perpetrators profit from control, exploitation, coercion and defrauding of others through forced labor, or sexual exploitation and in some cases both. Sexual exploitation is the most prevalent form of human trafficking especially in the United States. Even though accurate statistics are rare in this field, those currently existing approximate that massive numbers of women and girls are sold for sexual exploitation within

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham Free Essays

string(171) " for this reason that necessary intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to help reduce the rates of tuberculosis among individuals living in Newham\." 1.Introduction Tuberculosis is a very serious infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs, causing cough and breathing difficulties. The infection also causes systemic effects including fever, night sweats and weight loss (Ellner, 2011). We will write a custom essay sample on An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham or any similar topic only for you Order Now In some cases, the infection can spread beyond the lungs and affect the bone/joints, lymph nodes, abdomen and blood stream (Ormerod, 2003). The disease is caused by the bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis (WHO, 2014), which is spread through respiratory droplets. These droplets are passed when an infected individual coughs or sneezes and the droplets become inhaled by another person (NHS, 2014). Despite this easy method of transmission, tuberculosis is not readily transmitted, and therefore is most likely to affect those in close contact such as family or household members (Castillo-Chavez Feng). Tuberculosis represents a significant risk of morbidity and mortality and represents a significant cost to society to treat and manage. Tuberculosis has particularly shown to be a problem in cities, whereby the rates of increase are greater than those of rural areas (Anderson et al. 2006). This essay will address the reasons as to why tuberculosis affects urban areas (the sick city hypothesis), and look in to why tuberculosis contributes to this urban health penalty. As an exemplar of an urban environment suffering from the burden of tuberculosis, this essay will focus on the London borough of Newham. Newham has a tuberculosis rate 8 times higher than the national average and 3 times that of London. This essay aims to investigate the aetiology behind the incidence, and to find ways of reducing the rates of tuberculosis among individuals in the London borough of Newham. The paper will include the intervention strategies and how they should be implemented in order to reduce the rates of new infections and encourage men to get tested and get early treatment before the spread of infection. 2.Tuberculosis in an Urban Environment Tuberculosis tends to be regarded as a problem of the past, and was responsible for 20-30% of all mortality in 17th-19th century Europe (Dye Williams, 2010). The incidence of tuberculosis declined throughout the 20th century (Watson Maguire, 1997), however, the disease has been slowly returning to London since the 1980’s (Great Britain 2008, p. 19). The problem seems to be worsening in urban areas. This is illustrated by the example of London, where 3,302 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2010 (Fullman Strachan 2013, p. 25), a figure that has more than doubled since 1992 (Anderson et al 2006). In 2006, the incidence of tuberculosis in London was 41.5 people in 100,000, a figure that represented the highest number of new cases in any major city in Western Europe (Anderson et al, 2006). Dyer (2010, p. 34) claims that the London borough of Newham is the most affected with some people already referring to it as the TB capital of the affluent western world. In fact , the rates of tuberculosis in Newham are currently higher than that in some impoverished countries. Vassall (2009, p. 48) suggest that Newham has 108 cases per 100,000 and Anderson et al suggest a 2001 figure of 116/100,000, figures that are more than half that in India (174 cases per 100,000) (Public Health England, 2012). Newham has a population of 308,000 with a population density of 85.1 per hectare as compared to 31 in central London (UK Census, 2012). These figures suggest that even in the populated city of London, Newham is an area of urbanisation, with a large number of people concentrated into a relatively small area. The increase of tuberculosis has been described as a ‘penalty for high density urban living’ (Dye 2010, p.859), likely due to the increased potential for transmission in overcrowding, and the increased rates of immigration to inner-city areas. Bhunu and Mushavabasa (2012) propose that tuberculosis thrives in conditions of overcrowding and poverty, issues that are common in urban areas. The high rates of tuberculosis in cities such as London, and areas of urbanization such as Newham, suggest that the incidence of tuberculosis is indeed an urban issue. Newham fulfills the criteria of high immigration rates and being an area of deprivation.. Newham has a diverse ethnic population, with 61% of the people being non-white (Farrar Manson 2013, p. 54). The population of ethnic minorities continues to grow along with the increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers in greater London. Another aspect of urbanisation illustrated in the borough of Newham is that of deprivation and overcrowding. Farrar Manson (2013, p. 16) claim that Newham ranks as the third most deprived borough in inner London. Most of the people here live in tower housing and overcrowded conditions that are the perfect condition for the spread of tuberculosis. There is a positive correlation between poor housing and poverty and the prevalence of tuberculosis, which is very clear in Newham as evidenced by the findings of 108 and 116 cases per 100,000 people (Vassal, 2009; Anderson et al., 2001). The aetiology of the issue of tuberculosis is highlighted when considering the distribution of the disease across Newham. The occurrence of disease is not evenly spread across the borough, with 70% of cases coming from Manor Park, Green Street and East Ham. These boroughs represent areas of population increase, overcrowding and higher levels of those living in poverty. Manor Park and Green Street also show differing dynamics of tuberculosis incidence, representing an overall increase of 40% since 2006 whilst all other areas of Newham either remained static or showed slight decrease (Malone et al 2009, p. 23). It can be seen that tuberculosis presents a significant urban issue, especially when comparing incidence in an urban area such as Newham to those less urbanised areas. Bromley has a population of 309,000 and a population density of 20 per hectare, in comparison to Newham’s population density of 80 per hectare (UK Census, 2012). Tuberculosis incidence in Bromley is between 0-19 per 100,000 compared to that of Newham, which is five times greater at 80-100 per 100,000 (Anderson et al., 2006). It is for this reason that necessary intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to help reduce the rates of tuberculosis among individuals living in Newham. You read "An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham" in category "Essay examples" 3. The Influence of Urbanisation on Tuberculosis Incidence While the global rates of tuberculosis are declining, the disease is showing steady increase in the United Kingdom. In 2012, 8751 new cases of the disease were identified in the country with 39% coming from London (Fullman and Strachan 2013, p. 43). Indeed London has the highest rates of the disease in Western Europe with Newham borough having the highest rates in the UK. Jindal (2011, p. 55) claims that the rate of tuberculosis in some London boroughs is more than twice higher than the threshold used by the world health organisation to define high rates. These higher incidences support the notion of a sick city hypothesis where there are greater levels of ill health than in rural areas, and may be due to the presence of factors in an urban environment that contribute to ill health (an urban health penalty). One factor that may contribute to the urban health penalty is that of immigration. Cities are easier to access than rural areas, provide areas of congregation and provide more facilities for immigrating families and individuals. The majority of individuals suffering from tuberculosis are people born outside the United Kingdom, with 75% of cases in 2003 being born abroad (Anderson et al., 2006). A reason for the high incidence in those born abroad but now living in the UK is exacerbated by the nature of tuberculosis. On initial infection, tuberculosis is confined by the immune system with only around 5% of cases experiencing symptoms within the first two years of infection (Narasimhan et al., 2013). The remainder of cases harbour a latent infection which may reactivate later in life, with about 10-15% of those infected going on to develop an active disease (Narasimhan et al., 2013). This insidious nature combined with the later activation of the disease explains why many people do not get the disease until later in life. It is likely that it is contracted in their country of birth, however then manifests much later once they have moved to the UK. Statistics indicate that over 90% of the residents in Newham diagnosed with the disease in 2011 were born outside the United Kingdom (Fullman and Strachan, 2013, p. 33). Among these, 50% arrived in the country in the last five years. In the same year tuberculosis diagnosis increased by 25% compared to 2010 (Fullman and Strachan, 2013), possibly as a reflection of the increased immigration. Additionally to a high immigrant population bringing significant disease burden from their countries of birth, London and Newham both represent many of the other issues of urbanisation and urban health penalty that can contribute to the high incidence of tuberculosis. Studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (Campbell and Spector, 2012; Chan, 1999). This is an important association in urban populations, as the living and working conditions foster less access to sunlight (the major source of vitamin D). Additionally, Asian immigrants present a problem of low vitamin D due to vegetarian diets, and a tendency to cover up their skin, not allowing to take advantage of the small amount of sunlight available (Chan, 1999). As previously mentioned, Newham is an area of both high urbanisation and with a large immigrant population, and 38.6% of the population being of Asian descent (London Borough of Newham, 2010). The immigrant population of urban areas such as Newham also present a non-vaccinated proportion of society. Whilst the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis was introduced in the UK in the 1950s and was shown to provide a reduction in risk of contracting tuberculosis (Colditz et al., 1994), those immigrating were less likely to receive this vaccination on moving to the UK. London also represents cases of tuberculosis that are socially and medically complex. As a hugely populated area, London includes those with HIV infection and presents other risk factors such as onward transmission and poor treatment. HIV is one of the most powerful risk factors for tuberculosis, with a incidence rate of 20 times higher in those that are HIV positive (Dye and Williams, 2010). People’s attitudes towards and access to healthcare also present a complex mix of factors which contribute to an increased incidence of many health problems, including that of tuberculosis. Those in impoverished areas have reduced access to healthcare, which may stem from many reasons such as complex needs, chaotic lifestyles, location of services, user ignorance, and language and literacy barriers (Szczepura, 2005). These can affect the disease process of tuberculosis from prevention, treatment of active disease, adherence to treatment and prevention of the health consequences. Especially problematic are misconceptions and a lack of understanding of the disease, leading to late presentation and delayed access to treatment (Figuera-Munoz and Ramon-Pardo, 2008) With the close living quarters in areas such as Newham, the spread of tuberculosis is facilitated. With poverty, poor housing and overcrowding, these areas concentrate several risk factors and lead to a greater spread of tuberculosis (Bates et al., 2004). These determinants therefore suggest that the incidence of tuberculosis in urban areas is a complex issue. Controlling and preventing tuberculosis in London requires effective social and economic tools that must be incorporated in the development of policies of control in treatment initiation. 4. Consequences and implications of tuberculosis on the general population Tuberculosis ranks with HIV/ AIDS and Malaria as one of the three main health challenges currently facing the world. The Commonwealth Health Ministers Update 2009 (2009, p. 41) indicates that 8 million new cases are reported globally each year. As previously mentioned, when combined with HIV, tuberculosis can prove lethal as the two diseases enhance the progress of each other. It is for this reason that tuberculosis is the major cause of death among HIV patients with the rate standing at 11% globally. The World Health Organization (2009, p. 27) indicates that tuberculosis is responsible for more deaths today than ever before, with approximately 2 million lives claimed by the disease annually. As well as the significant mortality contributed by tuberculosis, the morbidity of the disease can be extremely detrimental both socially and economically. Those with the active disease that are not receiving treatment have been shown to go on to infect 10-15 others every year (WHO, 1998). Those who do receive treatment face a long (up to six months) and complex treatment regime involving several medication side effects. This can affect adherence to the treatment regime, and lead to the disease developing a resistance to the treatment, with this drug resistant tuberculosis contributing to greater mortality and increased expense to treat (Ahlburg, 2000). As well as the significant morbidity and mortality, it is important to consider the economic impact of tuberculosis. The World Health Organisation estimated the cost to treat tuberculosis in 2000 as $250,000 US dollars (?150,000) in developed countries (Ahlburg, 2000). This presents a significant burden to the UK NHS, not to mention the time lost through not working which can dent the economy. London is a global world trade centre whose economy is shaped by global forces, particularly in terms of trade, labour and capital. As a gateway to both the UK and other parts of Europe and the rest of the world, London records a very large number of tourists and immigrant populations. This high number of people accelerates the spread of the disease as people carry it to the country from other parts of the world is indicated by the new infection patterns and is highlighted by the prevalence in immigrant populations. 5. Strategies and intervention for addressing tuberculosis Current UK guidelines for tuberculosis intervention were made by NICE in 2006 (updated 2011). The recommendations propose strategies for identifying those with latent (non-active) tuberculosis to prevent spread or reactivation and also specify criteria for treatment (NICE, 2011). Those recommended for screening for latent tuberculosis include close contacts of infected individuals, immigrants from high incidence countries, immunocompromised individuals, and healthcare workers. Whilst this strategy targets prevention of the spread of tuberculosis, they are only targeting specific groups, and it is likely in high incidence areas such as Newham, people will slip through the net. These guidelines have only changed minimally since 2006, and since then tuberculosis incidence has been on the increase in areas such as Newham, suggesting that changes may need to be made. High incidence areas of the UK such as Newham could learn from New York experience and copy the strategy it used in dealing with the disease. With the implementation of broadened initial treatment regimes, direct observed therapy, and improved guidelines for hospital control and disease prevention, the city managed to halt the progression of an epidemic (Frieden et al., 1995). As mentioned in the previous chapter, adherence to the lengthy treatment regime as well as a lack of understanding may contribute to the spread of tuberculosis. Directly observed therapy (DOT) involves observing the patient take each dose of their medication, with outreach workers travelling to their homes. Evidence from New York showed that through DOT, only 3% of patients in therapy were infectious, compared to a proposed 20% if not receiving DOT (Frieden et al., 1995). Current UK guidelines (NICE, 2006) do not recommend DOT, although they do state that it may be used in cases of patients with previous issues with adherence or at high risk. Although an expensive and time consuming process, if DOT can reduce infectious cases, this would also work as a preventative measure. There could be one allocated outreach nurse for the borough of Newham and other high-risk areas. Another method implemented in New York was the downsizing of large shelters for the homeless. These were breeding grounds for tuberculosis, and the subsequent reduction in overcrowding led to a decrease in transmission of the disease (Frieden et al., 1995). Whilst it is not possible to split people up from living with their families in crowded homes in terms of Newham, education about keeping those with tuberculosis from interacting with too many others in crowded conditions may be of benefit. The model should also borrow from those used by other cities like Paris and the rest of Europe in controlling tuberculosis with intervention at the level of the agent, individual and community levels. In Paris, Rieder (2002) suggested that prophylactic treatment could be used to prevent the disease occurring in those at risk, for example those in the household of an identified case of tuberculosis. Additionally, Rieder (2002) proposed that early or neonate vaccination be used especially in those in areas where tuberculosis is frequent, rarely diagnosed, and adequate contact examinations rarely feasible. It may be possible that in cases where lots of people are vaccinated that they may infer herd immunity and thus protect unvaccinated individuals from the disease. Once the populations have been protected and the incidence (number of new cases) of tuberculosis has been reduced, this allows for a reduction in the prevalence of tuberculosis (number of ongoing cases at any one point in time) with preventative chemotherapy that can treat sub-clinical, latent tuberculosis in the population. This preventative chemotherapy is likely to be extremely relevant to Newham due to the large immig rant population likely harbouring latent tuberculosis. On a country- or city-wide scale, these recommendations from New York and Paris provide excellent models for preventing the increase of tuberculosis any further. It is also important, however, to consider the individual communities in Newham, and to promote health awareness and an attitude towards taking responsibility for their health. Their needs to be an encouragement at the level of primary care where immigrant populations feel that they can approach healthcare, and education to encourage tuberculosis prevention and adherence to treatment. The strategy should be all-inclusive in order to encourage people to not only go for testing but also start and finish the treatment process. 6. Recommendations and conclusion Tuberculosis presents an important urban issue in the area of Newham. Incidence is greater than other areas of the UK, and is over half that of India. There are several factors contributing to this including a large immigrant population, crowding and overpopulation, access to healthcare and comorbid health problems such as vitamin D deficiency and HIV. The disease has considerable effect on morbidity and is responsible for high levels of mortality. Further consequences of the disease manifest as economic problems such as cost of treatment and loss of work. London and the UK already have policies and structures for controlling tuberculosis in place; however the implementation process is patchy across the city, and often dependent upon budget. In high-risk areas such as Newham, there is poor access of healthcare due to inaccurate beliefs on the disease, language and cultural barriers, and complex needs of the population. In the case of tuberculosis, these contribute to poor disease prevention, delayed diagnosis and poor treatment adherence. All of which lead to an increase in transmission and health consequences. The area of Newham would benefit greatly from further education into tuberculosis, how to look for signs and how to get treatment. Encouraging good relationship with healthcare professionals and promoting access to healthcare through outreach programmes and targeting pharmacies may be helpful. Additionally, Newham should look to employ techniques used in New York and Paris, including DOT, prophylactic treatment and neonate vaccination to reduce both the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis. References Ahlburg (2000). The economic impact of TB: ministerial conference Amsterdam, WHO Bates, I., Fenton, C., Gruber, J., Lalloo, D., Lara, A. M., Squire, S. B., †¦ and Tolhurst, R. (2004). ‘Vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS infection and disease. Part II: determinants operating at environmental and institutional level’. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4(6), pp. 368-375. Bhunu, C. P., and Mushayabasa, S. (2012). ‘Assessing the effects of poverty in tuberculosis transmission dynamics’. Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 36(9), pp. 4173-4185. Campbell, G. R., and Spector, S. A. (2012). ‘Vitamin D inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macrophages through the induction of autophagy’. PLoS pathogens, vol. 8(5). Castillo-Chavez, C., and Feng, Z. (1997). ‘To treat or not to treat: the case of tuberculosis. Journal of mathematical biology’, vol. 35(6), pp. 629-656. Colditz, G. A., Brewer, T. F., Berkey, C. S., Wilson, M. E., Burdick, E., Fineberg, H. V., and Mosteller, F. (1994). ‘Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosismeta-analysis of the published literature’. Jama, vol. 271(9), pp. 698-702. Commonwealth Health Ministers Update 2009. (2009). Commonwealth Secretarial. Dye, C., and Williams, B. G. (2010). ‘The population dynamics and control of tuberculosis’. Science, vol 328(5980), pp. 856-861. Dyer, C. A. (2010). Tuberculosis. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: vol332. Farrar, J., Manson, P. (2013). Manson’s tropical diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Figueroa-Munoz, J. I., Ramon-Pardo, P. (2008). Tuberculosis control in vulnerable groups. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86(9), 733-735. Frieden, T. R., Fujiwara, P. I., Washko, R. M., and Hamburg, M. A. (1995). ‘Tuberculosis in New York City—turning the tide’. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333(4), pp. 229-233. Fullman, J., Strachan, D. (2013). Frommer’s London 2013. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Great Britain. (2008). Diseases know no frontiers: How effective are intergovernmental organisations in controlling their spread; 1st report of session, 2007-08. London: Stationery Office. Jindal, S. K. (2011). Textbook of pulmonary and critical care medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. London Borough of Newham, (2010). Community Leaders and Engagement, Manor Park Community Forum Profile [Online], Available:http://www.newham.info/research/CFProfiles/ManorPark.pdf [12 April 2014]. Malone, C., Beasley, R. P., Bressler, J., Graviss, E. A., Vernon, S. W., University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health. (2009). Trends in anti-tuberculosis drug resistance from 2003–2007 at Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. (Masters Abstracts International, 47-5.) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2006) [Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control]. [CG117]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ormerod, L.P. (2003) ‘Nonrespiratory tuberculosis. In Davies PDO (Ed) Clinical Tuberculosis. Third Edition. Arnold: London. pp. 125-153. Public Health England (2012), World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of tuberculosis incidence by rate, 2012 (sorted by rate). [Online] Available at: http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317140584841 [12 April 2014]. Rieder, H. A. (2002). Interventions for Tuberculosis Control, 1st edn. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France. Szczepura, A. (2005). ‘Access to health care for ethnic minority populations’. Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 81(953), pp. 141-147. Vassall, A., University of Amsterdam. (2009). The Costs and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Watson, J. M., and Maguire. H.C (1997). ‘PHLS work on the surveillance and epidemiology of tuberculosis.’ Communicable disease report. CDR review 7.8, pp. R110-2. World Health Organization. (2009). Global tuberculosis control: Epidemiology, strategy, financing : WHO report 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organisation (2014). Tuberculosis. [Online], Available: http://www.who.int/topics/tuberculosis/en/ [12 April 2014] UK Census (2012), UK Census Data, [Online]. http://www.ukcensusdata.com/newham-e09000025#sthash.51Phmj6a.dpbs [12 April 2014] How to cite An Analysis of the Urban Issue of Tuberculosisin the Bourough of Newham, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Systems University Libraries Chhattisgarh â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Systems University Libraries Chhattisgarh? Answer: Introducation The current system that is being followed at the library has a lot many flaws in terms of operations and management. It is not possible for the management to keep a track of the members and the videos that are borrowed by them. Management of loans has also become difficult to track with the increase in the number of members. Due to the issues in the current system, the members are beginning to look out for similar business units in the area. It is due to the reason that they are not satisfied by the services that are being provided to them which leads to deterioration of revenues for the organization. An automated library management system that has been proposed will be able to bring back the reduced customer trust and will lead to higher profits and competitive advantage. Data gathering Data Analysis Questionnaire: The technique will allow the project team members to extract the information from the project stakeholders regarding their expectation from the system. A set of questions will be provided to them and their response will be received on the same (Chaleunvong, 2009). Interviews: The project team may also arrange interview sessions with the project stakeholders, such as, library owner and management team so that they may bring forwards their concerns with the current system and their expectations from the new system. Brainstorming Sessions: There may also be group sessions executed to bring out the new concepts and ideas and gather maximum information (Morgan and Harmon, 2011). Automated data analytics tools: These tools may be used by the project team members for automatic analysis of the data and information that is collected using the above three techniques. Data Modeling and Normalization Tbl_Branch Attribute name Data type branchNo Number address String telephone Number manager Number Tbl_Staff Attribute name Data type staffNo Number firstName String lastName String position String salary Number Tbl_Category Attribute name Data type code String name String description String Tbl_Video Attribute name Data type videoNo String copyNo String title String category String dailyRental Number cost Number categoryNo Number Tbl_Customer Attribute name Data type memberNo Number firstName String lastName String street String State String zipcode Number dateOfRegistration Date branch Number Tbl_Publisher Attribute name Data type publicationNo Number firstName String lastName String licenseNo Number city String country String Technical Feasibility The project will have a set of functional and non-functional requirements which will be required to be implemented. There will be a front end and a back end that will be developed for the library management system using PHP as the programming language and MySQL as the database. There will be data analytics tools that will also be required to be integrated in the system along with payment gateways and security tools. All of these functionalities are doable and there will not be any issues in the compatibility between the sub-systems. The project is feasible from the technical aspect (Thompson, 2005). Economical Feasibility There will be various costs that will be associated with the project in terms of cost of the tools, cost of resources and cost of the project activities. The costs will be handled and provided by the project sponsor. Monash Video Library is in business since long and the project sponsor will be able to manage the costs. The project is feasible from the economical aspect (Gis, 2013). Operational Feasibility The features and functionalities that will be implemented in the system will be used by the end-users which would comprise of the members and the administrative department. The system will have a set of support documents so that the users may not get stuck at any point. The project will be feasible from the operational aspect as well. Business Requirement specification Functional Requirements Ability to the member and the admin to login to the system in a secure manner. Ability to the member to view the video catalogue and apply filters on the same. Ability to the member to select a particular video for borrowing. Ability to the member to apply the option of hold on the video to get it later (Ahmed, 2015). Ability to the system to generate alerts for the members before their due date of return. Ability to the admin to view the information on videos that are borrowed by the members. Ability to view the return details by the admin. Ability to extract reports from the system in terms of videos borrowed, returned and pending over a period of time. Ability to manage the member subscriptions by the admin. Non-functional Requirements The library management system must allow the members and the admin to login and use the system at any time and from any location. The performance of the system shall never be compromised with increase in the number of users at the same time. The throughput time and response time shall stay constant. The system shall be scalable so that the new requirements and modifications can be made as per the changing nature of technology and specifications (Chung, 2013). There will be updates that will be required to be installed in future. The system shall allow the ability to easily maintain it. The system shall have good usability and it should match with the functional aspects that are provided to the team members (Eeles, 2012). Business Proposed solution The proposed solution for Monash Video Library is the automated information system for the management of the library operations. There are currently many issues that are seen with the present system in terms of inaccurate information management, slow processing and likewise. These problems will be overcome by the new system as it will automate the activities, such as, login, video borrowing, video returns, report management, member subscriptions etc. It will lead to enhancement of the customer engagement and trust as they will be able to view all the services provided by the library through the system. The flow of operations will also improve along with information handling and management (Kumar, 2014). It will lead to a competitive edge to the library in the market and will also improve upon the revenues and profits that will be earned. Implementation issues There may be certain issues in terms of the implementation of the new system that may be observed. The implementation of the library management system in Monash Video Library will bring in many technical and operational changes for the members of the staff. They may take time to get used to the new system which may lead to the loss in productivity and efficiency levels of the employees. It will be required for the end-users to make them aware about the system functions and features with the medium of training sessions. There may be users who may miss out on these sessions and may face operational challenges as a result. The implementation of the system may also bring in additional costs in case of security attacks or technical failures. These additional costs may be difficult to bear by the project sponsor and may lead to further challenges. Such a system is being implemented for the first time in the library and therefore, it may bring up security risks and attacks. There may be breaching of information along with loss or leakage that may take place. References Ahmed, M. (2015). Management Information Systems in University Libraries of Chhattisgarh. [online] Available at: https://crl.du.ac.in/ical09/papers/index_files/ical-121_185_722_1_PB.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Chaleunvong, K. (2009). Data Collection Techniques. [online] Available at: https://www.gfmer.ch/Activites_internationales_Fr/Laos/PDF/Data_collection_tecniques_Chaleunvong_Laos_2009.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Chung, L. (2013). Non-Functional Requirements. [online] Available at: https://www.utdallas.edu/~chung/SYSM6309/NFR-18-4-on-1.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Eeles, P. (2012). Non-Functional Requirements. [online] Available at: https://www.architecting.co.uk/presentations/NFRs.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Gis (2013). Feasibility analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.gis.geo.uj.edu.pl/Teaching_tool_on_knowledge_transfer/eng/wydruki/pdf/Feasibility%20analysis.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Kumar, P. (2014). Library Management System. [online] Available at: https://dspace.cusat.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/8218/1/library%20management%20system.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Morgan, G. and Harmon, R. (2011). Data Collection Techniques. [online] Available at: https://www.appstate.edu/~steelekm/classes/psy3100/Documents/DataCollection.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017]. Thompson, A. (2005). Business Feasibility Study Online. [online] Available at: https://bestentrepreneur.murdoch.edu.au/Business_Feasibility_Study_Outline.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2017].

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Social Networks free essay sample

Also according to Lenhart and Madden, â€Å"Adults are much less likely than teens to have a profile on a social network website. About three in ten (35%) adult internet users age 18 and older have a profile on a social networking site like MySpace, Facebook or LinkedIn†(2007). How ever, teenagers are twice as likely as adults in use of these websites. Some others use it because they do not have friends in real life and they wish to make new but somehow they are afraid, and they can write anything they want to say without any fear by using social networks. Social networking technology does affect negatively on people as it causes family problems, it can be dangerous for people and it can change behavior for the worse. Social networking causes many family problems that can affect relations. As a fact, family relations are sensitive and small problems can turn to big issues if they didn’t find the right solutions for them. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Networks or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These networks take the happy moments that people can spend with family, because children prefer to sit with their computers than family, so it makes distance between the family members. Children prefer to hide their emotions and problems from their own family to tell a stranger about it and it makes them trust strangers not relatives. Why does this happen? Social networking is turning to be the best choice for children and adults to spend time. It could be nothing more than they want some independence from their parents and freedom from parents involved. Some children want to say things to their friends who are the same age and they feel they understand them more than parents. Families are suffering with the problems websites are causing. For example, two girls committed suicide because some abuse on social networks and because of pictures that were spread on Internet from these websites. These stories was in a news website that talked about two girls one committed suicide because of sexting, and the other one because of some abuse on social networks from her friends (ABC News). Other problems we can mention are teenagers got addicted to these social networks and that is a sign of behavior changing negatively. These problems for sure increase with time and affect people who use social networks and every one who is around them. The reasons why these problems are huge is because social networks never stops producing new things that attract teens and adults and encourage them to use them more and more. Adults and teenagers invite their friends and tell them to join these networks, as they are fun. Parents are aware about these problems and of course they are trying their best to find solutions for them. Some research happened to show the opinion of parents who have children with social network profiles, â€Å"Research by YouGov showed a quarter of children aged six to 11 spend an hour a day on social networking such as Facebook and Twitter. But only one-in-10 uses the Internet daily for homework†. Extra parents of older children were distressed concerning their offspring’s grades skidding as a consequence of online distractions (mirror news, 2011). This research shows that parents are really aware and worried about social networks and the negative effects of them on their children, and supports the negative side of using social networks. These social networks can be dangerous and harmful. Teens and adults, who do not care about what will happen, they are not aware of the danger that these etworks can make, are using social networks. â€Å"Though the user’s privacy settings determine whether they can be contacted by strangers or friends, many youth may not realize or use these privacy settings, thus exposing them to online predators† (Wolak, et al, 2007). There are lots of social networks, and people from many different countries use them to find new friends and make online relations. The fact is that, in social networks teens meet wrong people who use them in wrong way. These meetings can also lead to a real life meeting and outing and here the danger increases. Teens who decide to meet new people from Internet and bring them to their real life, may not tell their parents about it, and here the problem takes a wrong direction in many cases. Basically, in social networks teens and adults are more likely to meet these wrong people and believe them. Some people pretend to be friend then divulging personal information and then they can enter others profile, they maybe send messages to other people about anything they that will damage their computers. These fraud people can send viruses using others name and spread it on Internet. Fake identities are also a big problem happens in this social networking world. Some make fake identities to get attention and it is not a problem usually, problem begins when they spread wrong information about this person that harms someone else. â€Å"Their motives could just be to have a little nameless fun but they are extra probable to be sinister, like instituting phony friendships that lead to face-to-face meetings alongside who-knows-what aftermath, or to drift invitations to mature sites†(scam Busters Organization). They can make advertisements about a famous brand and take money from people and fool them and some may believe. Teens can be fooled quickly because some of them believe everything they see, especially when they put advertisement with pictures and colors that attract teenagers and adults the most. Social networking has many negative effects on teens and adults that lead to big problems. Social networks make people change their behavior. Nowadays, children use social networks more than anything else. Dr. Gallagher believes that â€Å"young teenagers and preteens are the most vulnerable to negative consequences of social media†(2011). Teens and adults change their behavior when they feel that social networking is more important than real life relations. Parents object on their children when they use social networks all day, which leads to put anger in teens and adults so they miss behave with their parents. Even parents may not know how to react and they start shouting on their children, it can also be one of the causes of changing behavior in adults and teenagers. Children turn to be abusers and they got that violent behavior with others. As Ryan (august 26,2011) has noted, â€Å"Teens who use social networking sites are three times as likely to drink alcohol, and five times more likely to smoke tobacco than teens who dont frequent the sites. † When other people post pictures like smoking and having drugs, that effect on children who use these networks and get excited to try this even if they never tried it before. This is a big issue and a reason that makes children change to the worst. They do not respect elders anymore as Socrates pointed out â€Å"  they show disrespect for their elders and love chatter in place of exercise† (2011). Kids are producing up amid a marine of electronic media. It is vital for parents to ponder how this could encounter communal existence, progress, academics, and adjustment, and how parents can assist as a buffer from a little of the possible negative aftermath( Daiz, Y. , Evans, L. , Gallagher,R). Social networks change behavior to worst because teens like their new life and personality on these networks than the real one. People around teens and adults who use social networks can be affected. For example, children can ignore Parents as they find new friends online. These friends share the same age and think the same, so children in this age do not like their parents interfere in what they are doing. Here when children change their behavior and it becomes more violent and disrespectable for people around them. Using social networks more and more can make children lose interest in studies and that is a one face of changing behavior. According to a recent poll, 22% of teenagers log on to their favorite social media site more than 10 times a day†(council on Communications and Media). These research shows that adults and teens who use social networks more than 10 times a day, they will not have a good focus on their studies. That can cause damage to their marks in school. It will lead to their parent anger and will affect on teens and make them feel upset, and also it can cause behavior changing. Som e people may argue that social networks are good to use and they have positive things like connecting with people. They connect people and also give some skills to teenagers in their growing age. They support their argument by saying that â€Å"Talking on a social networking site may also bring a teen’s personality to the forefront, while the focus on a disability lessens â€Å"(Holmquist. J 2007). Some one also might argue that becoming cozy alongside communal networking locations might additionally assistance teens change to a globe that is intentions extra and extra alongside convoluted technologies (2007). They also say â€Å"Middle and high school students are using social media to connect with one another on homework and group projects†(Schurgin. G, Clarke. K). One seeming benefit is that youth can increase their circle of friends and even converse extra frequently alongside spread relations (Holmquist. J 2007). They could maybe show that social networks can be good enough for children to use and make them more interesting to go in and see what they are is. All that may be true; however, we must consider the harm that all these social networks cause and realize how much greater the harm is than their positive effects. Networks can connect people together and strong the relations but not for adults and children, because they are still go to school and can see their friends and connect with them in real life. It is better to talk face to face rather than facing a computer screen without knowing their emotions. Also bulling is a big problem happens on social networks as â€Å"Some research has shown that youth with disabilities are at a greater risk of being bullied, and bullying can also occur on social networking sites†(Holmquist. J 2007). In conclusion, social networking has both sides of negative and positive effects that can be good or harmful for children. Parents should be aware of these social networking activities that their children do and put limits on using it. It will surly reduce the effects of social networks on them. Parents also can take help from some child study centers like NYU child study center that could be useful for them, they will have more idea about social networking and how they work. Parents can also join their children in using these networks by being friendly with them, so children will feel more confortable talking to their mother and father. Networks can be good and bad, it depends on how we want to use it and make it more interesting or make it more scary and harmful. References Mirror News ( 9 may,2011), Parents fear social networking sites are affecting their childrens school grades.. Retrieved from http://www. mirror. co. uk/ Celizic, M. (2009). Her teen committed suicide over ‘sexting’ . Retrieved from http://today. snbc. msn. com/id/29546030/ns/today-parenting_and_family/t/her-teen-committed-suicide-over-sexting/#. T8OOPbBo0Ug Goldman, R. (2010, March 29). Teens indicted after allegedly taunting girl who hanged herself. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews. go. com Marquette,S. (2011), How kids fool their parents on social networks. NBC News. Retrieved from http://www. msnbc. msn. com/ McLoughlin, C. amp; Burgess, J. (2009). Texting, sex ting and social networking among Australian youth and the need for cyber safety education. Australian Association for Research in Education International Education Research Conference 2009 Canberra. Retrieved from AARE, website http://www. aare. edu. au/09pap/mcl091427. pdf Wolak, J. , Mitchell, K. J. , Finkelhor, D. (2007). Does online harassment constitute bullying? An exploration of online harassment by known peers and online-only contacts. Journal of Adolescent Health 41: S51-S58. Daiz, Y. , Evans, L. , Gallagher,R. Anti-Social Networking: how do texting and social media affect our children?. Retrieved from http://www. aboutourkids. org/ Holmquist, J. (n. d. ). Social Networking Sites: Consider the Benefits, Concerns for Your Teenager . Retrieved from University Of Minnesota website: http://ici. umn. edu/ Schurgin. G, Clarke. K, The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Retrieved from http://pediatrics. aappublications. org/ Scam Busters Organization. (n. d. ). the 5 Most Common Social Networking Scams. Retrieved from http://www. scambusters. org/socialnetworking. html

Friday, March 6, 2020

Models of Health Behavior Essays

Models of Health Behavior Essays Models of Health Behavior Paper Models of Health Behavior Paper Note: If candidate uses incorrect formula: maximum 1/4 marks (for standard form) substitution into correct formula Note: If an error in subs and 4  ± ? 80 gets: and 6 states â€Å"no solution†: maximum 3/4 marks 4  ± 16 + 96 6 4  ± 112 = 6 2 ±2 7 = 3 = 2,43 or ? 1,10 112 If doesn’t conclude with â€Å"no solution†: maximum 2/4 marks 4  ± 112 or 6 decimal answer (4) Copyright reserved Mathematics/PI 3 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 OR 3x 2 ? 4 x = 8 3x 2 ? 4 x ? 8 = 0 x= = ? b  ± b ? 4ac 2a ? (? 4)  ± 2 (? 4)2 ? 4(3)(? 8) 2(3) Note: Penalise 1 mark for inaccurate rounding off to ANY number of decimal places if candidate gives decimal answers tandard form substitution into correct formula answer answer (4) = 2,43 or ? 1,10 1. 1. 3 4 x 2 + 1 ? 5x (4 x ? 1)(x ? 1) ? 0 + 0 1 4 x? OR 4 x 2 ? 5x + 1 ? 0 factors ? 0 1 + 1 4 1? ? OR ? ? ? ; ? ? [1; ? ) 4? ? 1 both critical 1 values of and 1 4 or OR ? answer (4) 1 or x ? 1 4 1 4 1 x OR 1 4 1 xNote: If candidate gives either of these correct graphical solutions but writes down the incorrect intervals or uses AND: max 3/4 marks NOTES: If a candidate gives an answer of 1 ? x ? If a candidate gives an answer of 1 then max 3/4 marks. 4 1 ? x ? 1 then max 2/4 marks. 4 1 If a candidate gives an answer of x ? nd x ? 1 then max 3/4 marks. 4 If the candidate leaves out the equality of the notation then penalty of 1 mark. 1 If a candidate gives an answer of x ? ; x ? 1 then max 3/4 marks. 4 1 If candidate gives x ? and/or x ? 1 , BREAKDOWN: max 2/4 marks. 4 If candidate gives : 0 ? 0 + + award 3/4 marks 1 1 4 Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 4 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 1. 2. 1 x 2 + 5 xy + 6 y 2 = 0 (x + 3 y )(x + 2 y ) = 0 x + 3y = 0 x = ? 3 y OR x = ? 3 y OR x + 2y = 0 x = ? 2 y x = ? 2 y Note: If a candidate gives x x ? = 3 or ? = 2 y y award 2/3 marks factors answers (3) Let k = y 2 x + 5 xy + 6 y 2 = 0 2 ?x? ?x? ? ? + 5? ? + 6 = 0 ? y? ? y? ? ? ? ? 2 k + 5k + 6 = 0 (k + 3)(k + 2) = 0 k = – 3 or k = – 2 x x = ? 3 or = ? 2 y y OR factors answers (3) x 2 + 5 xy + 6 y 2 = 0 x= x= ? 5 y  ± (5 y ) 2 ? 4(1)(6 y 2 ) 2(1) ? 5y  ± y2 2 ? 5y  ± y x= 2 x = ? 3 y x = ? 2 y or x x = ? 3 = ? 2 y y substitutes correctly into correct formula answers (3) OR x 2 + 5 xy + 6 y 2 = 0 ?5 x 2 + 5 xy + ? ?2 ? 5 ? y ? = ? 6 y 2 + ? ?2 ? 2 2 ? y? ? 2 5 ? 1 2 ? ? x + y? = y 2 ? 4 ? 5 1 x+ y= ± y 2 2 5 1 x=? y ± y 2 2 completing the square Copyright reservedPlease turn over Mathematics/PI x = ? 3 y x = ? 3 y x = ? y 5 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 answers (3) or x = ? 2 y OR Let k = x = ky x y x 2 + 5 xy + 6 y 2 = 0 (ky )2 + 5 y(ky ) + 6 y 2 = 0 k 2 y 2 + 5 y 2k + 6 y 2 = 0 y 2 k 2 + 5k + 6 = 0 ( (k ) 2 + 5k + 6 = 0 ) factors (k + 3)(k + 2) = 0 k = – 3 or k = – 2 x x = ? 3 or = ? 2 y y answers (3) Note: (x;y) = (0;0) is also a solution, but in this case OR x is undefined y Let y = 1 , x 2 + 5x + 6 = 0 (x + 2)(x + 3) = 0 x = ? 2 or x = ? 3 x x = ? 2 or = ? 3 y y x+ y =8 ? 3y + y = 8 ? 2y = 8 y = ? 4 x = 12 factors answers (3) x+ y =8 ? 2y + y = 8 ? y =8 y = ? 8 x = 16 1. 2. 2 OR substitution x = – 3y subs x = ? 2 y values both x values correct (5) OR 8? y = ? 3 y 8 ? y = ? 3 y 8 = ? 2 y y = ? 4 x = 12 Copyright reserved 8? y = ? 2 OR y 8 ? y = ? 2 y 8 = ? y y = ? 8 x = 16 x=8–y substitution y values both correct x values (5) Please turn over Mathematics/PI 6 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 OR x+ y =8 y =8? x x = ? 3 OR 8? x x = ? 3(8 ? x ) x = ? 24 + 3 x ? 2 x = ? 24 x = 12 y = ? 4 OR y =8? x x = ? 2 8? x x = ? 2(8 ? x ) x = ? 16 + 2 x ? x = ? 16 x = 16 y = ? 8 substitution x values correct both y values correct (5) (x + 2 y )(x + 3 y ) = 0 x+ y =8 x =8? y ( y + 8)(2 y + 8) = 0 y = ? 8 or y = ? 4 x = 16 x = 12 x =8? y ubstitution y values correct both x values correct (5) OR x = 8? y x = 8? y 2 (8 ? y ) 2 + 5(8 ? y ) y + 6 y = 0 64 ? 16 y + y 2 + 40 y ? 5 y 2 + 6 y 2 = 0 2 y 2 + 24 y + 64 = 0 y 2 + 12 y + 32 = 0 ( y + 8)( y + 4) = 0 y = ? 8 or y = ? 4 x = 16 x = 12 OR substitution factors both y values correct both x values correct (5) Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 7 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 OR x =8? y (8 ? y ) 2 + 5(8 ? y ) y + 6 y = 0 2 2 2 2 x = 8? y substitution 64 ? 16 y + y + 40 y ? 5 y + 6 y = 0 2 y 2 + 24 y + 64 = 0 y 2 + 12 y + 32 = 0 ? 12  ± 12 ? 4(1)(32) y= 2(1) 2 ? 12  ± 16 2 y = ? 8 or y = ? x = 16 x = 12 = Note: If a candidate uses the formula and replaces x for y and then answers are swapped: maximum 4/5 marks substitutes into correct formula both y values correct both x values correct (5) OR y =8? x x 2 + 5 x(8 ? x ) + 6(8 ? x )2 = 0 x + 40 x ? 5 x + 6 64 ? 16 x + x 2 x 2 ? 56 x + 384 = 0 x 2 ? 28 x + 192 = 0 (x ? 16)(x ? 12) = 0 x = 16 x = 12 or y = ? 8 y = ? 4 2 2 y =8? x 2 ( )= 0 substitution factors both x values correct both y values correct (5) OR y =8? x x + 5 x(8 ? x ) + 6 (8 ? x ) = 0 2 2 y =8? x substitution x + 40 x ? 5 x 2 2 + 6(64 ? 16 x + x ) = 0 2 2 x 2 ? 56 x + 384 = 0 x 2 ? 28 x + 192 = 0 x= = ? ? 28)  ± 28  ± 416 2 (? 28)2 ? 4(1)(192) 2(1) x = 12 x = 16 or y = ? 4 y = ? 8 substitutes into correct formula both x values correct both correct y values (5) [19] Please turn over Copyright reserved Mathematics/PI 8 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 2 2. 1. 1 x ? 4 = 32 ? x 2 x = 36 x = 18 T2 ? T1 = T3 ? T2 Note: If answer only: award 2/2 marks answer (2) a + 2d = 32 and a = 4 OR a=4 a + 2d = 32 2d = 28 d = 14 x = 14 + 4 x = 18 OR Note: If candidate writes x? 4 32 ? x only (i. e. omits equality) : 0/2 marks answer (2) substitutes correctly into arithmetic mean 4 + 32 formula i. e. 2 answers (2) T2 T3 = T1 T2 x= + 32 = 18 2 2. 1. 2 x 32 = 4 x x 2 = 128 x =  ± 128 x =  ±8 2 OR a=4 x r= 4 ? x? ar 2 = 4? ? ? 4? ? x? 32 = 4? ? ? 4? x 2 = 128 OR x =  ±11,31 OR x =  ± 2 2 7 Note: If candidate 32 x only writes 4 x (i. e. omits e quality) : 0/2 marks x 2 = 128 both answers (surd or decimal or exponential form) (3) Note: If only x = 128 then penalty 1 mark 2 2 2 ? x? 32 = 4? ? ? 4? 2 x = 128 x =  ± 128 x =  ±8 2 or x =  ±11,31 or x =  ± 2 2 7 both answers (surd or decimal or exponential form) (3) substitutes correctly into geometric mean formula i. e.  ± 4? 32 both answers (surd or decimal or exponential form) (3) Please turn over OR x =  ± 4 ? 32 =  ± 128 or x =  ±8 2 or x =  ±11,31 or x =  ± 2 2 7 Copyright reserved Mathematics/PI 9 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 2. 2 13 P = ? 3k ? 5 a = 3? 4 or +3 3? 5 =3 k =1 1? 5 +3 2? 5 + + 3 13 ? 5 = 3 ? 4 + 3 ? 3 + 3- 2 + + 38 3 ? 4 313 ? 1 = 3 ? 1 = 9841,49 Note: Correct answer only: 1/4 marks only 1 81 ( ) r =3 subs into correct formula or 9841 40 797161 or 81 81 answer (4) OR 13 P = ? 3k ? 5 k =1 1? 5 =3 + 32 ? 5 + 33 ? 5 + + 313 ? 5 2. 3 2 S n = [2a + (n ? 1)d ] + [2a + (n ? 1)d ] + + [2a + (n ? 1)d ] + [2a + (n ? 1)d ] = n[2a + (n ? 1)d ] Sn = n [2a + (n ? 1)d ] 2 S n = [a + (n ? 1)d ] + [a + (n ? 2)d ] + [a + d ] + a = 3 ? 4 + 3? 3 + 3- 2 + + 38 1 1 1 = + + + + 6561 81 27 9 40 797161 or = 9841,49 or 9841 81 81 S n = a + [a + d ] + [a + 2d ] + + [a + (n ? 2 )d ] + [a + (n ? 1)d ] Note: If the candidate rounds off and gets 9841,46 (i. e. correct to one decimal place): DO NOT penalise for the rounding off. expand the sum 13 terms in expansion answer (4) writing out Sn â€Å"reversing† Sn expressing 2Sn grouping to get 2 S n = n[2a + (n ? 1)d ] (4) writing out Sn â€Å"reversing† Sn expressing 2Sn grouping to get 2S n = n[a + a + (n ? 1)d ] (4) OR S n = a + [a + d ] + [a + 2d ] + + (Tn ? d ) + Tn S n = Tn + (Tn ? d ) + [a + d ] + a = n[a + a + (n ? 1)d ] = [2a + (n ? 1)d ] Sn = n [2a + (n ? 1)d ] 2 2 S n = a + Tn + a + Tn + a + Tn + + a + Tn Note: If a candidate uses a circular argument (eg S n +1 = S n + Tn ): max 1/4 marks (for writing out Sn) Note: If a candidate uses a specific linear sequence, then NO marks. [13] Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 10 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 3 3. 1 21; 24 Note: If candidate writes T8 = 21 T7 = 24 : award 1/2 marks 21 24 (2) 3. 2 T2 k = 3. 2 k ? 1 and so T52 = 3. 2 26 ? 1 = 100663296 Note: If candidate writes out all 52 terms and gets correct answer: award 5/5 marks . 2 k ? 1 T52 6k ? 3 T51 T2k ? 1 = 3 + 6(k ? 1) = 6k ? 3 and so T51 = 6(26) ? 3 = 153 T52 ? T51 = 100663296 ? 153 = 100663143 answer Note: If candidate used k = 52: max 2/5 Note: if candidate interchanges order i. e. does T51 ? T52 : max 4/5 marks Note: writes out all 52 terms and subtracts T51 ? T52 : max 4/5 marks (5) OR Consider sequence P: 3 ; 6 ; 12 †¦ Pn = 3. 2 n? 1 P26 = 3. 2 26 ? 1 = 100663296 Consider sequence Q: 3 ; 9 ; 15 †¦ Qn = 6n ? 3 Q26 = 6(26) ? 3 = 153 T52 ? T51 = P26 ? Q26 = 100663296 ? 153 = 100663143 Pn = 3. 2 n? 1 P26 Qn = 6n ? 3 Q26 answer (5) Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 1 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 3. 3 For all n ? N , n = 2k or n = 2k ? 1 for some k ? N If n = 2k : Tn = T2k = 3. 2 k ? 1 If n = 2k ? 1 : Tn = T2k ? 1 = 6k ? 3 = 3(2k ? 1) factors 3. 2 k ? 1 Note: If a candidate only illustrates divisibility by 3 with a specific finite part of the sequence, not the general term: 0/2 marks factors 3(2k ? 1) (2) In either case, Tn has a factor of 3, so is divisible by 3. OR Pn = 3. 2 n ? 1 Which is a multiple of 3 Qn = 6 n ? 3 = 3(2n ? 1) Which is also a multiple of 3 Since Tn = Q2 k ? 1 or Tn = P2 k for all n ? N , Tn is always divisible by 3 OR factors 3. 2 n ? 1 factors 3(2n ? 1) (2)The odd terms are odd multiples of 3 and the even terms are 3 times a power of 2. This means that all the terms are multiples of 3 and are therefore divisible by 3. odd multiples of 3 3 times a power of 2 (2) [9] Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 12 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 4 4. 1 The second, third, fourth and fift h terms are 1 ; – 6 ; T4 and – 14 First differences are: – 7 ; T4 + 6 ; – 14 – T4 So T4 + 6 + 7= – 14 – 2T4 – 6 T4 = – 11 d = – 11 + 6 + 7 = 2 or – 14 + 22 – 6 = 2 Note: Answer only (i. e. d = 2) with no working: 3 marks Note: Candidate gives T4 = ? 11 and d = 2 only: award 5/5 marks 7 T4 + 6 – 14 – T4 setting up equation T5 ? T2 = (T5 ? T4 ) + (T4 ? T3 ) + (T3 ? T2 ) answer (5) –7 –7+d – 7 + 2d setting up equation T5 ? T2 = (T5 ? T4 ) + (T4 ? T3 ) + (T3 ? T2 ) OR T2 1 -7 T3 -6 -7+d d T4 -7+2d d T5 -14 T5 ? T2 = (T5 ? T4 ) + (T4 ? T3 ) + (T3 ? T2 ) ? 15 = (? 7 + 2d ) + (? 7 + d ) + ? 7 ? 15 = ? 21 + 3d 6 = 3d d =2 Note: Candidate uses trial and error and shows this: award 5/5 marks answer (5) OR 4a + 2b + c = 1 9a + 3b + c = ? 6 5a + b = ? 7 25a + 5b + c = ? 14 16a + 2b = ? 8 10a + 2b = ? 14 6a = 6 a =1 d = 2a = 2 4a + 2b + c = 1 9a + 3b + c = ? 6 25a + 5b + c = ? 1 4 solved simultaneously answer (5) ORT1 1 – T1 T1 8 1 -7 T4+13 -6 T4+6 -20-2 T4 -14 T4 -14 T4 –7 T4 + 6 ? 14 ? T4 setting up equation answer (5) Please turn over T4 + 13 = ? 20 ? 2T4 3T4 = ? 33 T4 = ? 11 d = ? 11 + 13 d =2 Copyright reserved Mathematics/PI 13 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 OR T1 x 1–x -8+x T2 1 -7 y +13 T3 -6 y+6 20 – 2y T4 y -14 y T5 -14 –7 y+6 ? 14 ? y y + 13 = ? 20 ? 2 y 3 y = ? 33 y = ? 11 Second difference = y + 13 = ? 11 + 13 = 2 4. 2 T1 1 –6 -9 2 -7 Note: Answer only: award 2/2 marks Note: If incorrect d in 4. 1, 2/2 CA marks for T1 = d + 8 (since 1 ? T1 = ? 7 ? d ) setting up equation answer (5) method T1 = 10 (2) T1 = 10 OR =1 5a + b = ? 7 5(1) + b = ? 7 b = ? 12 a +b+c =1 4(1) + 2(? 12) + c = 1 c = 21 Tn = n 2 ? 12n + 21 T1 = (1) 2 ? 12(1) + 21 = 10 OR method T1 = 10 (2) T4 + 13 = ? 8 + T1 ? 11 + 13 = ? 8 + T1 T1 = 10 y + 13 = ? 8 + x method T1 = 10 (2) [7] OR ? 11 + 13 = ? 8 + x x = 10 Copyright res erved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 14 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 5 5. 1. 1 y = f (0) ? 6 = ? 1 0? 3 =1 (0 ; 1) OR ?6 ? 1 x? 3 ? 6 1= x? 3 x ? 3 = ? 6 0= x = ? 3 (? 3 ; 0) x = 0 and y = 1 5. 1. 2 Note: Mark 5. 1. 1 and 5. 1. 2 as a single question. If the intercepts are interchanged: max 3/5 marks y =1 x=0 (2) y=0 x ? 3 = ? 6 nswer (3) shape y 5. 1. 3 Note: The graph must tend towards the asymptotes in order to be awarded the shape mark (? 3; 0) (0 ; 1) 0 3 x y = ? 1 ?1 x=3 both intercepts correct horizontal asymptote vertical asymptote (4) Note: A candidate who draws only one ‘arm’ of the hyperbola loses the ‘shape’ mark i. e. max 3/4 marks 5. 1. 4 ? 3 lt; x lt; 3 OR (? 3; 3) OR ? 3 lt; x and x lt; 3 Note: if candidate writes ? 3 lt; x only: 1/2 marks Note: if candidate writes x lt; 3 only: 1/2 marks ?3 and 3 inequality OR interval notation (2) Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 15 NSC – Memorandum DBE/Novem ber 2011 5. 1. y= ?6 ? 1 ? 2? 3 1 = 5 1? 1 5 1 5 m= 0 ? (? 2) 2 = 5 formula substitution answer (4) OR m= = f (0) ? f (? 2) 0 ? (? 2) 1? 1 5 formula f (? 2) = 1 5 0+2 2 = 5 b lt; 0 since b lt; 0 and a lt; 0 2a y x substitution answer (4) y-intercept negative turning point on the x axis turning point on the left of the y axis maximum TP and quadratic shape 5. 2 x=? 0 (4) [19] Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 16 NSC – Memorandum y DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 6 f C(0 ; 4,5) g x O A B 6. 1 0 = 2x ? 8 8 = 2x 23 = 2 x x=3 A(3 ; 0) f (0) = 2 0 ? 8 = 1? 8 = ? 7 B(0 ; –7) Note: no CA marks Note: answer only: award 2/2 marks =0 answer for A x=0 answer for B (4) answer (1) 6. 2 6. 3 y = ? 8 OR y + 8 = 0 h( x ) = f ( 2 x ) + 8 = 22x ? 8 + 8 ( ) (2 2 x ? 8) answer of h( x ) = 4 x or 2 2 x (2) = 4 x or 2 2 x 6. 4 x = 4y y = log 4 x OR x = 22 y 2 y = log 2 x 1 y = log 2 x OR y = log 2 x 2 Note: answer only award 2/2 marks Note: candidate works out f -1 and gets y = l og 2 ( x + 8) award 1/2 marks log x OR y = log 4 switch x and y answer in the form y =†¦ (2) 6. 5 p ( x) = ? log 4 x OR p( x) = log 1 x 4 answer (1) OR p ( x) = log 4 OR 1 x OR 1 p( x) = ? log 2 x 2 y = ? log 2 x Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 17 NSC – Memorandum 5 DBE/November 2011 . 6 ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) = g (0) + g (1) + g (2) + g (3) ? g (4) ? g (5) x = 3 is the axis of symmetry of g ? by symmetry g (2) = g (4) and g (1) = g (5) Answer = g (0) + g (3) = 4,5 + 0 = 4,5 OR k =0 k =4 3 = g (0) + g (1) + g (2) + g (3) ? g (4) ? g (5) g (2) = g (4) and g (1) = g (5) g (0) + g (3) answer (4) ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) ? g (k ) = g (0) + g (1) + g (2) + g (3) ? g (k ) = g (4) + g (5) k =4 k =0 5 3 5 expansion k =0 3 k =4 x = 3 is the axis of symmetry of g ? by symmetry g (4) = g (2) g (5) = g (1) k =0 g (2) = g (4) and g (1) = g (5) ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) k =4 3 5 = g (0) + g (3) = 4,5 + 0 = 4,5 OR g (0) + g (3) answer (4) ( x) = a( x ? 3) + 0 2 4,5 = a(0 ? 3) 2 + 0 4,5 = 9a 1 a= 2 1 2 g ( x) = ( x ? 3) 2 k =0 3 k =0 g ( x) = 1 (x ? 3)2 2 ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) k =4 3 5 ? g (k ) = g (0) + g (1) + g (2) + g (3) = 4,5 + 2 + 0,5 + 0 =7 expansion Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 18 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 k =4 ? g (k ) = g (4) + g (5) = 0,5 + 2 = 2,5 ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) k =4 3 5 5 k =0 = 7 ? 2,5 = 4,5 7 ? 2,5 answer (4) OR g ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c g (k ) = ak 2 + bk + c g (0) = c g (1) = a + b + c g (2) = 4a + 2b + c g (3) = 9a + 3b + c k =0 ? g (k ) = 14a + 6b + 4c 3 g (4) = 16a + 4b + c ? g (k ) = 41a + 9b + 2c 5 5 (5) = 25a + 9b + c k =4 3 k =0 ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) = ? 27a ? 3b + 2c k =4 ? 27 a ? 3b + 2c g ( x) = a ( x ? 3)2 + 0 4,5 = a (0 ? 3) 2 + 0 4,5 = 9a 1 2 1 g ( x) = ( x ? 3)2 2 1 2 9 = x ? 3x + 2 2 a= k =0 ? g (k ) ? ? g (k ) = ? 27 a ? 3b + 2c k =4 3 5 g ( x) = 1 (x ? 3)2 2 ?9? ?1? = ? 27? ? ? 3(? 3) + 2? ? ? 2? ?2? = 4,5 answer (4) [14] Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 19 NSC – M emorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 7 7. 1 A = P(1 ? i ) P n = P(1 ? 0,07 ) 2 1 = 0,93n 2 1 log = n log 0,93 2 1 log 2 n= log 0,93 = 9,55 years n OR A = P(1 ? i )n P = P(1 ? 0,07 )n 2 1 = 0,93 n 2 1 log 0,93 = n 2 n = 9,55 yearsP 2 subs into correct formula A= log answer (4) Note: If candidate uses incorrect formula: max 1/4 marks P for A = 2 Note: If candidate interchanges A and P A i. e. uses P = : max 2/4 marks 2 Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 20 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 7. 2 Radesh: A = P(1 + in ) = 8 550 Bonus = 0,05 ? 6 000 = 300 = 6 000(1 + 0,085 ? 5) A = 6 000 + 8,5% of 6000 ? 5 OR = 6000 + 510 ? 5 = 6000 + 2550 = 8 550 8 550 Received = 8 550 + 300 = R 8 850 Thandi: n A = P(1 + i ) R8 850 ? 0,08 ? = 6 000? 1 + ? 4 ? ? = R 8 915,68 20 n = 20 0,08 i= 4 answer choice made (6) 0,15 1 or or 0,0125 12 80 n = 18 n = 18 7. 3Thandis investment is bigger. Fv = initial deposit with interest + annuity ? ? ? 0,15 ? 18 ? ?1 + ? ? 1? 18 ? 12 ? ? 0,15 ? = 1 000? 1 + ? + 700? ? 0,15 12 ? ? ? ? ? ? 12 ? ? = 1 250,58 + 14 032,33 = R15 282,91 i= OR ? 0,15 ? 1 000? 1 + ? 12 ? ? ? ? 0,15 ? 18 ? ? ? 1 + ? ?1? ? 12 ? 700? ? 0,15 ? ? ? ? 12 ? ? answer (6) 18 Fv = initial deposit with interest + annuity ?18 ? ? ? ? 1 ? ?1 + 0,15 ? ? ? 18 18 ? ? 0. 15 ? 0,15 ? 12 ? ? = 1 000? 1 + ? ? + 700? 1 + 0,15 12 ? 12 ? ? ? ? ? 12 ? ? 0,15 1 or or 0,0125 12 80 n = 18 n = 18 i= 0. 15 ? ? = 1 250,58 + 11220,68? 1 + ? 12 ? ? = 1 250,58 + 14 032,33 = R15 282,91 Copyright reserved 8 ? 0,15 ? 1 000? 1 + ? 12 ? ? ?18 ? ? ? 1 ? ?1 + 0,15 ? ? ? ? 12 ? 700? 0,15 ? ? 12 ? 18 ? ? 18 0. 15 ? ? 1 + 12 ? ? ? answer (6) Please turn over Mathematics/PI 21 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 OR ? ? 0,15 ? 19 ? ? ? 1 + ? ?1? 18 ? 12 ? ? 0,15 ? Fv = 300? 1 + ? + 700? ? 0,15 12 ? ? ? ? ? ? 12 ? ? = 375,17 + 14 907,74 = R15 282,91 0,15 1 or or 0,0125 80 12 n = 19 (corresponding to 700) n = 18 (corresponding to 300) i= ? 0,15 ? 300? 1 + ? 12 ? ? ? ? 0,15 ? 19 ? ? ? 1 + ? ?1? 12 ? ? 700? ? 0,15 ? ? ? ? 12 ? ? answer (6) [16] 18 QUESTION 8 8. 1 f ? ( x ) = lim = lim f (x + h ) ? f (x ) h h;0 ? 4( x + h )2 ? 4 x 2 h h;0 ( ) Note: Incorrect notation: formula substitution expansion = lim = lim ? 4 x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 + 4 x 2 h h;0 ? 4 x 2 ? 8 xh ? 4h 2 + 4 x 2 h h;0 ( ) no lim written: penalty 2 marks lim written before equals sign: penalty 1 mark Note: A candidate who gives –8x only: 0/5 marks Note: A candidate who omits brackets in the line lim (? 8 x ? 4h ) : h ;0 ? 8 xh ? 4h 2 = lim h h;0 h(? 8 x ? 4h ) = lim h h;0 = lim (? 8 x ? 4h ) h;0 ? 8 x ? 4h answer (5) = ? 8 x NO penalty OR Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 22 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 f ( x ) = ? 4 x 2 f ( x + h) = ? 4( x + h) 2 = ? 4 x 2 ? xh ? 4h 2 f ( x + h) ? f ( x) = ? 8 xh ? 4h 2 ? 8 xh ? 4h 2 f ? ( x) = lim h h;0 h ( ? 8 x ? 4 h ) = lim h h;0 = lim (? 8 x ? 4h) h;0 substitution expansion formula ? 8 x ? 4h = ? 8 x 8. 2. 1 y= 3 x2 ? 2x 2 3 1 = x ? 1 ? x 2 2 2 answer (5) 3 ? 1 x 2 ? Note: Incorrect notation in 8. 2. 1 and/or 8. 2. 2: Penalise 1 mark 3 dy = ? x ? 2 ? x 2 dx 3 =? 2 ? x 2x 8. 2. 2 f ( x) = (7 x + 1) 2 3 ? 2 x 2 (3) ?x = 49 x 2 + 14 x + 1 f ? ( x) = 98 x + 14 f ? (1) = 98(1) + 14 = 112 multiplication 98 x 14 answer (4) OR f ( x) = (7 x + 1) 2 f ? ( x) = 2(7 x + 1)(7 ) By the chain rule . f ? ( x) = 98 x + 14 f ? (1) = 98(1) + 14 = 112 hain rule answer (4) [12] Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 23 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 9 9. 1 f ( x ) = ? 2 x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 + 2ax + b = ? 6( x ? 5)( x ? 2) = ? 6 x 2 ? 7 x + 10 ( ) = ? 6 x 2 + 42 x ? 60 2a = 42 a = 21 b = ? 60 f (5) = ? 2(5) + 21(5) ? 60(5) + c 3 2 Note: A candidate who substitutes the values of a, b and c and then checks (by substitution) that T (2; ? 9 ) and S (5;18) lie on the curve: award max 2/7 marks f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 + 2ax + b ? 6( x ? 5)( x ? 2 ) b= –60 2a = 42 f (2) = ? 2(2) + 21(2) ? 60(2) + c OR ? 9 = ? 52 + c c = 43 3 2 18 = ? 5 + c c = 43 subs (5 ; 18) or (2 ; -9) c = 43 (7) Note: A candidate who substitutes the values of a, b and c into the a = 21 ; b = ? 60 ; c = 43 function i. e. gets f ( x) = ? 2 x 3 ? 21x 2 ? 60 x + 43 and then shows by substitution that T (2; ? 9 ) and S (5;18) are on the curve and works out the derivative i. e. gets f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 ? 42 x ? 60 and shows (by substitution into the derivative) that the turning points are at x = 2 and x = 5 (assuming what s/he sets out to prove and proving what is given): award max 4/7 marks as follows: x = 2 from f ? ( x ) = 0 OR subs x = 2 into the derivative and gets 0 x = 5 from f ? x ) = 0 OR subs x = 5 into the derivative and gets 0 substitution of x = 2 in f and gets – 9 substitution of x = 5 in f and gets 18 f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 + 2ax + b f ? (2) = 0 f ? (5) = 0 6a = 126 OR f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 + 2ax + b f ? (2) = ? 6(2) + 2a (2) + b 0 = ? 24 + 4a + b 2 b = 24 ? 4a f ? (5) = ? 6(5) 2 + 2a (5) + b 0 = ? 150 + 10a + b 0 = ? 150 + 10a + (24 ? 4a) 0 = ? 126 + 6a 6a = 126 a = 21 b = ? 60 f (5) = ? 2(5) + 21(5) ? 60(5) + c 3 2 Note: If derivative equal to zero is not written: penalize once only b = – 60 f (2) = ? 2(2) + 21(2) ? 60(2) + c 3 2 subs (5 ; 18) or (2 ; -9) c = 43 (7) Please turn over 18 = ? 25 + c c = 43Copyright reserved a = 21 ; b = ? 60 ; c = 43 OR ? 9 = ? 52 + c c = 43 Mathematics/PI 24 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 OR f (2) = ? 9 i. e. ? 16 + 4a + 2b + c = ? 9 4a + 2b + c = 7 f (5) = 18 i. e. ? 250 + 25a + 5b + c = 18 25a + 5b + c = 268 21a + 3b = 261 f ? (5) = 0 f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 + 2ax + b and f ? (2 ) = 0 OR 4a + b = 24 10a + b = 150 ? 16 + 4a + 2b + c = ? 9 and ? 250 + 25a + 5b + c = 18 f ? ( x ) = ? 6 x 2 + 2ax + b f ? (2) = 0 or f ? (5) = 0 12a + 3b = 72 9a = 189 189 9 a = 21 a= 12(21) + 3b = 72 3b = ? 180 b = ? 60 4(21) + 2(? 60 ) + c = 7 c = 43 4a + 2b + c = 7 OR 30a + 3b = 450 9a = 189 189 a= 9 a = 21 9a = 189 b = – 60 5a + 5b + c = 268 c = 43 subs (5 ; 18) or (2 ; -9) c = 43 (7) subs f ? (1) m tan = ? 24 f(1) = 2 f ? ( x) = ? 6 x + 42 x ? 60 2 OR 25(21) + 5(? 60 ) + c = 268 9. 2 f ? ( x) = ? 6 x + 42 x ? 60 2 m tan = ? 6(1) + 42(1) ? 60 2 = ? 24 3 2 f (1) = ? 2(1) + 21(1) ? 60(1) + 43 =2 Point of contact is (1 ; 2) y ? 2 = ? 24( x ? 1) y = ? 24 x + 26 9. 3 f ? ( x) = ? 6 x + 42 x ? 60 f ( x) = ? 12 x + 42 2 OR y = ? 24 x + c 2 = ? 24(1) + c c = 26 y = ? 24 x + 26 y ? 2 = ? 24( x ? 1) OR y = ? 24 x + 26 f ( x ) = ? 12 x + 42 (5) 0 = ? 12 x + 42 x= 7 2 x= 7 2 (2) OR 2+5 x= 2 Please turn over Copyright reserved Mathematics/PI 25 NSC – MemorandumDBE/November 2011 2+5 2 7 x= 2 OR ? 21 x= 3(? 2 ) 7 = 2 x= QUESTION 10 y x= 7 2 (2) x= ? 21 3(? 2 ) 7 x= 2 (2) [14] ?4 0 1 x y = f /(x) 10. 1 x-value of turning point: ? 4 +1 x= 2 3 =? 2 3 ? 3 ? ?x ;gt; ? OR ? x ? ? ? ; ? ? 2 ? 2 ? f has a local minimum at x = ? 4 because: (1; y) f ? 4 xgt;? 3 ? 3 ? OR ? ? ; ? ? 2 ? 2 ? (1) 10. 2 x=†“4 graph (3) f 1 –4 OR f ( x) lt; 0 for x lt; ? 4 , so f is decreasing for x lt; ? 4 . f / ( x) gt; 0 for ? 4 lt; x lt; 1 , so f is increasing for ? 4 lt; x lt; 1 . / i. e. –4 OR Copyright reserved ? f has a local minimum at x = ? 4 x=–4 f / ( x) lt; 0 for x lt; ? 4 f / ( x) gt; 0 for ? lt; x 0 so graph is concave up at x = – 4, so f has a local minimum at x = – 4. x=–4 gradient negative for x lt; ? 4 gradient positive for ? 4 lt; x lt; 1 (3) f ? (? 4) = 0 f (? 4) gt; 0 x=–4 (3) [4] QUESTION 11 11. 1 11. 2 V (0) = 100 ? 4(0) = 100 litres Rate in – rate out = 5 – k l / min answer (1) 5–k –4 units stated once 5 ? k = ? 4 k=9 V ? (t ) = ? 4 l / min 11. 3 5 ? k = ? 4 k = 9 l / min OR (3) (2) Note: Answer only: award 2/2 marks Volume at any time t = initial volume + incoming total – outgoing total 100 + 5t ? kt = 100 ? 4t 5t ? kt = ? 4t 9t ? kt = 0 t (9 ? k ) = 0 At 1 minute from start, t = 1, 9 â€⠀œ k = 0, so k = 9 OR 00 + 5t ? kt = 100 ? 4t k=9 (2) dV = ? 4 , the volume of water in the tank is decreasing by 4 dt litres every minute. So k is greater than 5 by 4, that is, k = 9. Since k=9 (2) [6] Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/PI 27 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 12 Note: If the wrong inequality 50x + 25y ? 500 is used, candidate wrongly says that there are more learners than available seats. Maximum of 10 marks. 12. 1 x, y ? N x + y ? 15 50 x + 25 y ? 500 y? 8 y ? ? x + 15 OR y ? ?2 x + 20 y? 8 Note: for the inequality’s marks to be awarded, the LHS and the RHS must be correctNote: If candidate gives 50 x + 25 y = 500 : max 5/6 marks x + y ? 15 y ? 8 50 x + 25 y ? 500 (6) 12. 2 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y x + y ? 15 50 x + 25 y ? 500 y? 8 feasible region (4) Blue buses x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Red buses 12. 3 12. 4. 1 C = 600 x + 300 y (6 ; 8) ; (7 ; 6) ; (8 ; 4) ; (9 ; 2) and (10 ; 0) NOTE: The gradient of the search line is m = ? answer 2 1 (1) 3 marks for all correct solutions 2 marks if only 3 or 4 correct solutions 1 mark if only 1 or 2 correct solutions (3) subs answer (2) 2. 4. 2 12. 5 C = 6(600) + 8(300) = R 6 000 or C = 7(600) + 6(300) = R 6 000 or C = 8(600) + 4(300) = R 6 000 or C = 9(600) + 2(300) = R 6 000 or C = 10(600) + 0(300) = R 6 000 8 red ; 4 blue answer (1) [17] TOTAL: 150 Copyright reserved Please turn over Mathematics/P1 28 NSC – Memorandum DBE/November 2011 QUESTION 12. 2 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y Blue Buses Red Buses 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Copyright reserved

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Define Groupthink Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Define Groupthink - Essay Example In groupthink consensus overrides common sense and inhibits the urge to present critique, unpopular opinion or alternatives to whatever is viewed as the commonly agreed ground (Wikipedia, 2013). In groupthink the urge to remain loyal to the team and maintain cohesion makes the team members to desist from raising alternative solutions or controversial issues. As a result, independent thinking, uniqueness in thought and individual creativity are lost at the expense of cohesion and loyalty to the group. The eventual outcome is poor problem solving and decision-making. The failed team dynamics of the â€Å"in-group† presents illusions that the appropriate decisions have been attained. Therefore the ‘in-group’ greatly overrates their decision-making abilities, and excessively downplays the decision-making ability of the ‘out-group’ or opponents. As such, team members tend to think or feel that they are more inclined to making the right decisions and offer better ideas and solutions than people from without the group. This happening often hinders the reception of contribution of ideas from non-group members or other groups (Wikipedia, 2013). This source uses the Swissair collapse and the Bay of Pigs Invasion as examples of events in which groupthink was at play when they took place. In the corporate sector suboptimal and ineffective decision-making may negatively impact on the good performance of any company and cause significant losses. Swissair had been a successful airline to the extent that at times it was referred to as the ‘Flying Bank (Hermann & Rammal, 2010).’ However, during this period of success the airline had two symptoms of groupthink (Wikipedia, 2013). These symptoms included the belief in group morality and invulnerability. Additionally, before the collapse fiasco the airline’s board was significantly reduced and people with expertise were eliminated. The board reduction action contributed to groupthink by leaving behind only